Chin. Phys. Lett.  2018, Vol. 35 Issue (9): 097401    DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/35/9/097401
Electric Field Induced Permanent Superconductivity in Layered Metal Nitride Chlorides HfNCl and ZrNCl
Shuai Zhang1**, Mo-Ran Gao1,2, Huan-Yan Fu1,3, Xin-Min Wang1,2, Zhi-An Ren1,2,4, Gen-Fu Chen1,2,4**
1Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190
2School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
3School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014
4Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190
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Abstract Devices of electric double-layer transistors (EDLTs) with ionic liquid have been employed as an effective way to dope carriers over a wide range. However, the induced electronic states can hardly survive in the materials after releasing the gate voltage $V_{\rm G}$ at temperatures higher than the melting point of the selected ionic liquid. Here we show that a permanent superconductivity with transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$ of 24 and 15 K is realized in single crystals and polycrystalline samples of HfNCl and ZrNCl upon applying proper $V_{\rm G}$'s at different temperatures. Reversible change between insulating and superconducting states can be obtained by applying positive and negative $V_{\rm G}$ at low temperature such as 220 K, whereas $V_{\rm G}$'s applied at 250 K induce the irreversible superconducting transition. The upper critical field $H_{\rm c2}$ of the superconducting states obtained at different gating temperatures shows similar temperature dependence. We propose a reasonable scenario that partial vacancy of Cl ions could be caused by applying proper $V_{\rm G}$'s at slightly higher processing temperatures, which consequently results in a permanent electron doping in the system. Such a technique shows great potential to systematically tune the bulk electronic state in the similar two-dimensional systems.
Received: 25 August 2018      Published: 29 August 2018
PACS:  74.25.-q (Properties of superconductors)  
  74.62.Bf (Effects of material synthesis, crystal structure, and chemical composition)  
  74.25.fc (Electric and thermal conductivity)  
Fund: Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 11704403, the National Key Research Program of China under Grant No 2016YFA0401000 and 2016YFA0300604, and the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of Chinese Academy of Sciences under Grant No XDB07020100.
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Shuai Zhang, Mo-Ran Gao, Huan-Yan Fu et al  2018 Chin. Phys. Lett. 35 097401
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Shuai Zhang
Mo-Ran Gao
Huan-Yan Fu
Xin-Min Wang
Zhi-An Ren
Gen-Fu Chen
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