Digital Simulation of Projective Non-Abelian Anyons with 68 Superconducting Qubits
Shibo Xu, Zheng-Zhi Sun, Ke Wang, Liang Xiang, Zehang Bao, Zitian Zhu, Fanhao Shen, Zixuan Song, Pengfei Zhang, Wenhui Ren, Xu Zhang, Hang Dong, Jinfeng Deng, Jiachen Chen, Yaozu Wu, Ziqi Tan, Yu Gao, Feitong Jin, Xuhao Zhu, Chuanyu Zhang, Ning Wang, Yiren Zou, Jiarun Zhong, Aosai Zhang, Weikang Li, Wenjie Jiang, Li-Wei Yu, Yunyan Yao, Zhen Wang, Hekang Li, Qiujiang Guo, Chao Song, H. Wang, and Dong-Ling Deng
Chin. Phys. Lett.
2023, 40 (6):
060301
.
DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/6/060301
Non-Abelian anyons are exotic quasiparticle excitations hosted by certain topological phases of matter. They break the fermion-boson dichotomy and obey non-Abelian braiding statistics: their interchanges yield unitary operations, rather than merely a phase factor, in a space spanned by topologically degenerate wavefunctions. They are the building blocks of topological quantum computing. However, experimental observation of non-Abelian anyons and their characterizing braiding statistics is notoriously challenging and has remained elusive hitherto, in spite of various theoretical proposals. Here, we report an experimental quantum digital simulation of projective non-Abelian anyons and their braiding statistics with up to 68 programmable superconducting qubits arranged on a two-dimensional lattice. By implementing the ground states of the toric-code model with twists through quantum circuits, we demonstrate that twists exchange electric and magnetic charges and behave as a particular type of non-Abelian anyons, i.e., the Ising anyons. In particular, we show experimentally that these twists follow the fusion rules and non-Abelian braiding statistics of the Ising type, and can be explored to encode topological logical qubits. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to implement both single- and two-qubit logic gates through applying a sequence of elementary Pauli gates on the underlying physical qubits. Our results demonstrate a versatile quantum digital approach for simulating non-Abelian anyons, offering a new lens into the study of such peculiar quasiparticles.