Hermitian systems possess unitary scattering. However, the Hermiticity is unnecessary for a unitary scattering although the scattering under the influence of non-Hermiticity is mostly non-unitary. Here we prove that the unitary scattering is protected by certain type of pseudo-Hermiticity and unaffected by the degree of non-Hermiticity. The energy conservation is violated in the scattering process and recovers after scattering. The subsystem of the pseudo-Hermitian scattering center including only the connection sites is Hermitian. These findings provide fundamental insights on the unitary scattering, pseudo-Hermiticity, and energy conservation, and are promising for light propagation, mesoscopic electron transport, and quantum interference in non-Hermitian systems.

The reversal of perpendicular magnetization (PM) by electric control is crucial for high-density integration of low-power magnetic random-access memory. Although the spin-transfer torque and spin-orbit torque technologies have been used to switch the magnetization of a free layer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, the former has limited endurance because of the high current density directly through the junction, while the latter requires an external magnetic field or unconventional configuration to break the symmetry. Here we propose and realize the orbit-transfer torque (OTT), that is, exerting torque on the magnetization using the orbital magnetic moments, and thus demonstrate a new strategy for current-driven PM reversal without external magnetic field. The perpendicular polarization of orbital magnetic moments is generated by a direct current in a few-layer WTe$_{2}$ due to the existence of nonzero Berry curvature dipole, and the polarization direction can be switched by changing the current polarity. Guided by this principle, we construct the WTe$_{2}$/Fe$_{3}$GeTe$_{2}$ heterostructures to achieve the OTT driven field-free deterministic switching of PM.

We predict that the square lattice layer formed by [Co$_2$N$_2$]$^{2-}$ diamond-like units can host high-temperature superconductivity. The layer appears in the stable ternary cobalt nitride, BaCo$_2$N$_2$. The electronic physics of the material stems from Co$_2$N$_2$ layers where the dimerized Co pairs form a square lattice. The low energy physics near Fermi energy can be described by an effective two-orbital model. Without considering interlayer couplings, the two orbitals are effectively decoupled. This electronic structure satisfies the “gene” character proposed for unconventional high-temperature superconductors. We predict that the leading superconducting pairing instability is driven from an extended $s$-wave ($s^\pm$) to a $d$-wave by hole doping, e.g., in Ba$_{1-x}$K$_x$Co$_2$N$_2$. This study provides a new platform to establish the superconducting mechanism of unconventional high-temperature superconductivity.

We report the discovery of superconductivity on the border of antiferromagnetic order in a quasi-one-dimensional material RbMn$_{6}$Bi$_{5}$ via measurements of resistivity and magnetic susceptibility under high pressures. Its phase diagram of temperature versus pressure resembles those of many magnetism-mediated superconducting systems. With increasing pressure, its antiferromagnetic ordering transition with $T_{\rm N} = 83$ K at ambient pressure is first enhanced moderately and then suppressed completely at a critical pressure of $P_{\rm c} \approx 13$ GPa, around which bulk superconductivity emerges and exhibits a dome-like $T_{\rm c}(P)$ with a maximal $T_{\rm c}^{\rm onset} \approx 9.5$ K at about 15 GPa. In addition, the superconducting state around $P_{\rm c}$ is characterized by a large upper critical field $\mu_{0}H_{\rm c2}(0)$ exceeding the Pauli paramagnetic limit, implying a possible unconventional paring mechanism. The present study, together with our recent work on KMn$_{6}$Bi$_{5}$ (the maximum $T_{\rm c}^{\rm onset} \approx 9.3$ K), makes $A$Mn$_{6}$Bi$_{5}$ ($A$ = alkali metal) a new family of Mn-based superconductors with relatively high $T_{\rm c}$.

Megabar pressures are of crucial importance for cutting-edge studies of condensed matter physics and geophysics. With the development of diamond anvil cell (DAC), laboratory studies of high pressure have entered the megabar era for decades. However, it is still challenging to implement in situ magnetic sensing under ultrahigh pressures. In this work, we demonstrate optically detected magnetic resonance and coherent quantum control of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center, a promising quantum sensor inside the DAC, up to 1.4 Mbar. The pressure dependence of optical and spin properties of NV centers in diamond are quantified, and the evolution of an external magnetic field has been successfully tracked at about 80 GPa. These results shed new light on our understanding of diamond NV centers and pave the way for quantum sensing under extreme conditions.

Realization of Kondo lattice in superconducting van der Waals materials not only provides a unique opportunity for tuning the Kondo lattice behavior by electrical gating or intercalation, but also is helpful for further understanding the heavy fermion superconductivity. Here we report a low-temperature and vector-magnetic-field scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy study on a superconducting compound (4Hb-TaS$_{2})$ with alternate stacking of 1T-TaS$_{2}$ and 1H-TaS$_{2}$ layers. We observe the quasi-two-dimensional superconductivity in the 1H-TaS$_{2}$ layer with anisotropic response to the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic fields. In the 1T-TaS$_{2}$ layer, we detect the Kondo resonance peak that results from the Kondo screening of the unpaired electrons in the Star-of-David clusters. We also find that the intensity of the Kondo resonance peak is sensitive to its relative position with the Fermi level, and it can be significantly enhanced when it is further shifted towards the Fermi level by evaporating Pb atoms onto the 1T-TaS$_{2}$ surface. Our results not only are important for fully understanding the electronic properties of 4Hb-TaS$_{2}$, but also pave the way for creating tunable Kondo lattice in the superconducting van der Waals materials.

It is known that $\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ has been studied extensively because of its proximity to the Kitaev quantum-spin-liquid (QSL) phase and the possibility of approaching it by tuning the competing interactions. Here we present the first polarized inelastic neutron scattering study on $\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ single crystals to explore the scattering continuum around the $\varGamma$ point at the Brillouin zone center, which was hypothesized to be resulting from the Kitaev QSL state but without concrete evidence. With polarization analyses, we find that, while the spin-wave excitations around the $M$ point vanish above the transition temperature $T_{\rm N}$, the pure magnetic continuous excitations around the $\varGamma$ point are robust against temperature. Furthermore, by calculating the dynamical spin-spin correlation function using the cluster perturbation theory, we derive magnetic dispersion spectra based on the $K$–$\varGamma$ model, which involves with a ferromagnetic Kitaev interaction of $-7.2$ meV and an off-diagonal interaction of $5.6$ meV. We find this model can reproduce not only the spin-wave excitation spectra around the $M$ point, but also the non-spin-wave continuous magnetic excitations around the $\varGamma$ point. These results provide evidence for the existence of fractional excitations around the $\varGamma$ point originating from the Kitaev QSL state, and further support the validity of the $K$–$\varGamma$ model as the effective minimal spin model to describe $\alpha$-RuCl$_3$.

We studied anomalous Josephson effect (AJE) in Josephson trijunctions fabricated on Bi$_2$Se$_3$, and found that the AJE in T-shaped trijunctions significantly alters the Majorana phase diagram of the trijunctions, when an in-plane magnetic field is applied parallel to two of the three single junctions. Such a phenomenon in topological insulator-based Josephson trijunction provides unambiguous evidence for the existence of AJE in the system, and may provide an additional knob for controlling the Majorana bound states in the Fu–Kane scheme of topological quantum computation.

As one of the most promising Kitaev quantum-spin-liquid (QSL) candidates, $\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ has received a great deal of attention. However, its ground state exhibits a long-range zigzag magnetic order, which defies the QSL phase. Nevertheless, the magnetic order is fragile and can be completely suppressed by applying an external magnetic field. Here, we explore the evolution of magnetic excitations of $\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ under an in-plane magnetic field, by carrying out inelastic neutron scattering measurements on high-quality single crystals. Under zero field, there exist spin-wave excitations near the $M$ point and a continuum near the $\varGamma$ point, which are believed to be associated with the zigzag magnetic order and fractional excitations of the Kitaev QSL state, respectively. By increasing the magnetic field, the spin-wave excitations gradually give way to the continuous excitations. On the verge of the critical field $\mu_0H_{\rm c}=7.5$ T, the former ones vanish and only the latter ones are left, indicating the emergence of a pure QSL state. By further increasing the field strength, the excitations near the $\varGamma$ point become more intense. By following the gap evolution of the excitations near the $\varGamma$ point, we are able to establish a phase diagram composed of three interesting phases, including a gapped zigzag order phase at low fields, possibly gapless QSL phase near $\mu_0H_{\rm c}$, and gapped partially polarized phase at high fields. These results demonstrate that an in-plane magnetic field can drive $\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ into a long-sought QSL state near the critical field.

We study a gate-tunable superconducting qubit (gatemon) based on a thin InAs-Al hybrid nanowire. Using a gate voltage to control its Josephson energy, the gatemon can reach the strong coupling regime to a microwave cavity. In the dispersive regime, we extract the energy relaxation time $T_1\sim0.56$ µs and the dephasing time $T_2^* \sim0.38$ µs. Since thin InAs-Al nanowires can have fewer or single sub-band occupation and recent transport experiment shows the existence of nearly quantized zero-bias conductance peaks, our result holds relevancy for detecting Majorana zero modes in thin InAs-Al nanowires using circuit quantum electrodynamics.

The discovery of magnetic skyrmions provides a promising pathway for developing functional spintronic memory and logic devices. Towards the future high-density memory application, nanoscale skyrmions with miniaturized diameters, ideally down to 20 nm are required. Using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism transmission microscopy, nanoscale skyrmions are observed in the [Pt/Co/Ir]$_{15}$ multilayer at room temperature. In particular, small skyrmions with minimum diameters approaching 20 nm could be generated by the current-induced spin-orbit torques. Through implementing material specific parameters, the dynamic process of skyrmion generation is further investigated by performing micromagnetic simulations. According to the simulation results, we find that both the tube-like Néel-type skyrmions and the bobber-like Néel-type skyrmions can be electrically generated. In particular, the size of the bobber-like Néel-type skyrmions can be effectively reduced by the spin-orbit torques, which leads to the formation of 20 nm Néel-type skyrmions. Our findings could be important for understanding the formation dynamics of nanoscale Néel-type spin textures, skyrmions and bobber in particular, which could also be useful for promoting nanoscale skyrmionic memories and logic devices.

Antiferromagnetic materials are exciting quantum materials with rich physics and great potential for applications. On the other hand, an accurate and efficient theoretical method is highly demanded for determining critical transition temperatures, Néel temperatures, of antiferromagnetic materials. The powerful graph neural networks (GNNs) that succeed in predicting material properties lose their advantage in predicting magnetic properties due to the small dataset of magnetic materials, while conventional machine learning models heavily depend on the quality of material descriptors. We propose a new strategy to extract high-level material representations by utilizing self-supervised training of GNNs on large-scale unlabeled datasets. According to the dimensional reduction analysis, we find that the learned knowledge about elements and magnetism transfers to the generated atomic vector representations. Compared with popular manually constructed descriptors and crystal graph convolutional neural networks, self-supervised material representations can help us to obtain a more accurate and efficient model for Néel temperatures, and the trained model can successfully predict high Néel temperature antiferromagnetic materials. Our self-supervised GNN may serve as a universal pre-training framework for various material properties.

We performed high-pressure transport studies on the flat-band Kagome compounds, Pd$_3$P$_2$(S$_{1-x}$Se$_x$)$_8$ ($x=0$, 0.25), with a diamond anvil cell. For both compounds, the resistivity exhibits an insulating behavior with pressure up to 17 GPa. With pressure above 20 GPa, a metallic behavior is observed at high temperatures in Pd$_3$P$_2$S$_8$, and superconductivity emerges at low temperatures. The onset temperature of superconducting transition $T_{\rm C}$ rises monotonically from 2 K to 4.8 K and does not saturate with pressure up to 43 GPa. For the Se-doped compound Pd$_3$P$_2$(S$_{0.75}$Se$_{0.25}$)$_8$, the $T_{\rm C}$ is about 1.5 K higher than that of the undoped one over the whole pressure range, and reaches 6.4 K at 43 GPa. The upper critical field with field applied along the $c$ axis at typical pressures is about 50$\%$ of the Pauli limit, suggesting a 3D superconductivity. The Hall coefficient in the metallic phase is low and exhibits a peaked behavior at about 30 K, which suggests either a multi-band electronic structure or an electron correlation effect in the system.

We report the structure and physical properties of two newly discovered compounds AV$_{8}$Sb$_{12}$ and AV$_{6}$Sb$_{6}$ (A = Cs, Rb), which have $C_{2}$ (space group: $Cmmm$) and $C_{3}$ (space group: $R\bar{3}m$) symmetry, respectively. The basic V-kagome unit appears in both compounds, but stacking differently. A V$_{2}$Sb$_{2}$ layer is sandwiched between two V$_{3}$Sb$_{5}$ layers in AV$_{8}$Sb$_{12}$, altering the V-kagome lattice and lowering the symmetry of kagome layer from hexagonal to orthorhombic. In AV$_{6}$Sb$_{6}$, the building block is a more complex slab made up of two half-V$_{3}$Sb$_{5}$ layers that are intercalated by Cs cations along the $c$-axis. Transport property measurements demonstrate that both compounds are nonmagnetic metals, with carrier concentrations at around $10^{21}$ cm$^{-3}$. No superconductivity has been observed in CsV$_{8}$Sb$_{12}$ above 0.3 K under in situ pressure up to 46 GPa. Compared to CsV$_{3}$Sb$_{5}$, theoretical calculations and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveal a quasi-two-dimensional electronic structure in CsV$_{8}$Sb$_{12}$ with $C_{2}$ symmetry and no van Hove singularities near the Fermi level. Our findings will stimulate more research into V-based kagome quantum materials.

The CsV$_{3}$Sb$_{5}$ kagome lattice holds the promise for manifesting electron correlation, topology and superconductivity. However, by far only three CsV$_{3}$Sb$_{5}$-like kagome materials have been experimentally spotted. We enlarge this family of materials to 1386 compounds via element species substitution, and the further screening process suggests that 28 promising candidates have superior thermodynamic stability, hence they are highly likely to be synthesizable. Moreover, these compounds possess several unique electronic structures, and can be categorized into five non-magnetic and three magnetic groups accordingly. It is our hope that this work can greatly expand the viable phase space of the CsV$_{3}$Sb$_{5}$-like materials for investigating or tuning the novel quantum phenomena in kagome lattice.

High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements were taken on FeSe$_{1-x}$S$_x$ ($x$ = 0, 0.04, and 0.08) superconductors. With an ultrahigh energy resolution of 0.4 meV, unusual two hole bands near the Brillouin-zone center, which was possibly a result of additional symmetry breaking, were identified in all the sulfur-substituted samples. In addition, in both of the hole bands highly anisotropic superconducting gaps with resolution limited nodes were evidenced. We find that the larger superconducting gap on the outer hole band is reduced linearly to the nematic transition temperature while the gap on the inner hole is nearly S-substitution independent. Our observations strongly suggest that the superconducting gap increases with enhanced nematicity although the superconducting transition temperature is not only governed by the pairing strength, demonstrating strong constraints on theories in the FeSe family.

Recently, by intercalating organic ions into bulk FeSe superconductors, two kinds of layered FeSe-based superconductors [(TBA)$_{x}$FeSe and (CTA)$_{x}$FeSe] with superconducting transition temperatures ($T_{\rm c}$) above 40 K have been discovered. Due to the large interlayer distance ($\sim $15 Å), these new layered superconductors have a large resistivity anisotropy analogous to bismuth-based cuprate superconductors. Moreover, remarkable pseudogap behavior well above $T_{\rm c}$ is revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on $^{77}$Se nuclei, suggesting a preformed pairing scenario similar to that of cuprates. Here, we report another new kind of organic-ion-intercalated FeSe superconductor, (PY)$_{x}$FeSe, with a reduced interlayer distance ($\sim $10 Å) compared to (TBA)$_{x}$FeSe and (CTA)$_{x}$FeSe. By performing $^{77}$Se NMR and transport measurements, we observe a similar pseudogap behavior well above $T_{\rm c}$ of $\sim $40 K and a large resistivity anisotropy of $\sim$$10^{\boldsymbol{4}}$ in (PY)$_{x}$FeSe. All these facts strongly support a universal pseudogap behavior in these layered FeSe-based superconductors with quasi-two-dimensional electronic structures.

Superlattice potentials are theoretically predicted to modify the single-particle electronic structures. The resulting Coulomb-interaction-dominated low-energy physics would generate highly novel many-body phenomena. Here, by in situ tunneling spectroscopy, we show the signatures of superstructure-modulated correlated electron states in epitaxial bilayer graphene (BLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). As the carrier density is locally quasi-‘tuned’ by the superlattice potentials of a $6 \times 6$ interface reconstruction phase, the spectral-weight transfer occurs between the two broad peaks flanking the charge-neutral point. Such a detected non-rigid band shift beyond the single-particle band description implies the existence of correlation effects, probably attributed to the modified interlayer coupling in epitaxial BLG by the $6 \times 6$ reconstruction as in magic-angle BLG by the moiré potentials. Quantitative analysis suggests that the intrinsic interface reconstruction shows a high carrier tunability of $\sim $1/2 filling range, equivalent to the back gating by a voltage of $\sim $70 V in a typical gated BLG/SiO$_{2}$/Si device. The finding in interface-modulated epitaxial BLG with reconstruction phase extends the BLG platform with electron correlations beyond the magic-angle situation, and may stimulate further investigations on correlated states in graphene systems and other van der Waals materials.

In recent years, great success has been achieved on the classification of symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases for interacting fermion systems by using generalized cohomology theory. However, the explicit calculation of generalized cohomology theory is extremely hard due to the difficulty of computing obstruction functions. Based on the physical picture of topological invariants and mathematical techniques in homotopy algebra, we develop an algorithm to resolve this hard problem. It is well known that cochains in the cohomology of the symmetry group, which are used to enumerate the SPT phases, can be expressed equivalently in different linear bases, known as the resolutions. By expressing the cochains in a reduced resolution containing much fewer basis than the choice commonly used in previous studies, the computational cost is drastically reduced. In particular, it reduces the computational cost for infinite discrete symmetry groups, like the wallpaper groups and space groups, from infinity to finity. As examples, we compute the classification of two-dimensional interacting fermionic SPT phases, for all 17 wallpaper symmetry groups.

Our understanding of how photons couple to different degrees of freedom in solids forms the bedrock of ultrafast physics and materials sciences. In this review, the emergent ultrafast dynamics in condensed matter at the attosecond timescale have been intensively discussed. In particular, the focus is put on recent developments of attosecond dynamics of charge, exciton, and magnetism. New concepts and indispensable role of interactions among multiple degrees of freedom in solids are highlighted. Applications of attosecond electronic metrology and future prospects toward attosecond dynamics in condensed matter are further discussed. These pioneering studies promise future development of advanced attosecond science and technology such as attosecond lasers, laser medical engineering, and ultrafast electronic devices.

In the context of tensor network states, we for the first time reformulate the corner transfer matrix renormalization group (CTMRG) method into a variational bilevel optimization algorithm. The solution of the optimization problem corresponds to the fixed-point environment pursued in the conventional CTMRG method, from which the partition function of a classical statistical model, represented by an infinite tensor network, can be efficiently evaluated. The validity of this variational idea is demonstrated by the high-precision calculation of the residual entropy of the dimer model, and is further verified by investigating several typical phase transitions in classical spin models, where the obtained critical points and critical exponents all agree with the best known results in literature. Its extension to three-dimensional tensor networks or quantum lattice models is straightforward, as also discussed briefly.

The switchability between the two ferroelectric (FE) states of an FE material makes FEs widely used in memories and other electronic devices. However, for conventional FEs, its FE switching only occurs between the two FE states whose spatial inversion symmetry is broken. The search for FE materials is therefore subject to certain limitations. We propose a new type of FEs whose FE states still contain spatial inversion centers. The change in polarization of this new type of FEs originates from electronic transfer between two centrosymmetric FE states under an external electric field. Taking BaBiO$_{3}$ as an example, we show that charge-ordering systems can be a typical representative of this new type of FEs. Moreover, unlike traditional ferroelectrics, the change in polarization in this new type of FEs is quantum in nature with the direction dependent on the specific FE transition path. Our work therefore not only extends the concept of FEs but may also open up a new way to find multiferroics.

Twisted bilayer graphene (TBG), which has drawn much attention in recent years, arises from van der Waals materials gathering each component together via van der Waals force. It is composed of two sheets of graphene rotated relatively to each other. Moiré potential, resulting from misorientation between layers, plays an essential role in determining the band structure of TBG, which directly relies on the twist angle. Once the twist angle approaches a certain critical value, flat bands will show up, indicating the suppression of kinetic energy, which significantly enhances the importance of Coulomb interaction between electrons. As a result, correlated states like correlated insulators emerge from TBG. Surprisingly, superconductivity in TBG is also reported in many experiments, which drags researchers into thinking about the underlying mechanism. Recently, the interest in the atomic reconstruction of TBG at small twist angles comes up and reinforces further understandings of properties of TBG. In addition, twisted multilayer graphene receives more and more attention, as they could likely outperform TBG although they are more difficult to handle experimentally. In this review, we mainly introduce theoretical and experimental progress on TBG. Besides the basic knowledge of TBG, we emphasize the essential role of atomic reconstruction in both experimental and theoretical investigations. The consideration of atomic reconstruction in small-twist situations can provide us with another aspect to have an insight into physical mechanism in TBG. In addition, we cover the recent hot topic, twisted multilayer graphene. While the bilayer situation can be relatively easy to resolve, multilayer situations can be really complicated, which could foster more unique and novel properties. Therefore, in the end of the review, we look forward to future development of twisted multilayer graphene.

Excitons in solid state are bosons generated by electron-hole pairs as the Coulomb screening is sufficiently reduced. The exciton condensation can result in exotic physics such as super-fluidity and insulating state. In charge density wave (CDW) state, 1T-TiSe$_{2}$ is one of the candidates that may host the exciton condensation. However, to envision its excitonic effect is still challenging, particularly at the two-dimensional limit, which is applicable to future devices. Here, we realize the epitaxial 1T-TiSe$_{2}$ bilayer, the two-dimensional limit for its $2 \times 2\times 2$ CDW order, to explore the exciton-associated effect. By means of high-resolution scanning tunneling spectroscopy and quasiparticle interference, we discover an unexpected state residing below the conduction band and right within the CDW gap region. As corroborated by our theoretical analysis, this mysterious phenomenon is in good agreement with the electron-exciton coupling. Our study provides a material platform to explore exciton-based electronics and opto-electronics.

Motivated by the recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in bilayer La$_3$Ni$_2$O$_7$ under pressure, we study its electronic properties and superconductivity due to strong electron correlation. Using the inversion symmetry, we decouple the low-energy electronic structure into block-diagonal symmetric and antisymmetric sectors. It is found that the antisymmetric sector can be reduced to a one-band system near half filling, while the symmetric bands occupied by about two electrons are heavily overdoped individually. Using the strong coupling mean field theory, we obtain strong superconducting pairing with $B_{\rm 1g}$ symmetry in the antisymmetric sector. We propose that due to the spin-orbital exchange coupling between the two sectors, $B_{\rm 1g}$ pairing is induced in the symmetric bands, which in turn boosts the pairing gap in the antisymmetric band and enhances the high-temperature superconductivity with a congruent d-wave symmetry in pressurized La$_3$Ni$_2$O$_7$.

Employing a comprehensive structure search and high-throughput first-principles calculation method on 1561 compounds, the present study reveals the phase diagram of Lu–H–N. In detail, the formation energy landscape of Lu–H–N is derived and utilized to assess the thermodynamic stability of each compound that is created via element substitution. The result indicates that there is no stable ternary structure in the Lu–H–N chemical system, however, metastable ternary structures, such as Lu$_{20}$H$_{2}$N$_{17}$ $(C2/m)$ and Lu$_{2}$H$_{2}$N ($P\bar{3}m1$), are observed to have small $E_{\rm hull}$ ($ < 100$ meV/atom). It is also found that the energy convex hull of the Lu–H–N system shifts its shape when applying hydrostatic pressure up to 10 GPa, and the external pressure stabilizes a couple of binary phases such as LuN$_{9}$ and Lu$_{10}$H$_{21}$. Additionally, interstitial voids in LuH$_{2}$ are observed, which may explain the formation of Lu$_{10}$H$_{21}$ and LuH$_{3-\delta}$N$_{\epsilon}$. To provide a basis for comparison, x-ray diffraction patterns and electronic structures of some compounds are also presented.

Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with high electron mobility is highly desired to study the emergent properties and to enhance future device performance. Here we report the formation of 2DEG with high mobility at the interface between rock-salt BaO and perovskite SrTiO$_{3}$. The interface consists of the ionically compensated BaO$_{1-\delta}$ layer and the electronically compensated TiO$_{2}$ layer, which is demonstrated as a perfect interface without lattice mismatch. The so-formed interface features metallic conductivity with ultralow square resistance of $7.3 \times 10^{-4}\,\Omega /\square$ at 2 K and high residual resistance ratios $R_{\rm 300\,K}/R_{\rm 2\,K}$ up to 4200. The electron mobility reaches 69000 cm$^{2}$$\cdot$V$^{-1}$$\cdot$s$^{-1}$ at 2 K, leading to Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations of resistance. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the effective charge transfers from BaO to the Ti 3$d_{xy}$ orbital occur at the interface, leading to the conducting TiO$_{2}$ layer. Our work unravels that BaO can adapt itself by removing oxygen to minimize the lattice mismatch and to provide substantial carriers to SrTiO$_{3}$, which is the key to forming 2DEGs with high mobility at the interfaces.

The simple kagome-lattice band structure possesses Dirac cones, flat band, and saddle point with van Hove singularities in the electronic density of states, facilitating the emergence of various electronic orders. Here we report a titanium-based kagome metal CsTi$_{3}$Bi$_{5}$ where titanium atoms form a kagome network, resembling its isostructural compound CsV$_{3}$Sb$_{5}$. Thermodynamic properties including the magnetization, resistance, and heat capacity reveal the conventional Fermi liquid behavior in the kagome metal CsTi$_{3}$Bi$_{5}$ and no signature of superconducting or charge density wave (CDW) transition anomaly down to 85 mK. Systematic angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal multiple bands crossing the Fermi level, consistent with the first-principles calculations. The flat band formed by the destructive interference of hopping in the kagome lattice is observed directly. Compared to CsV$_{3}$Sb$_{5}$, the van Hove singularities are pushed far away above the Fermi level in CsTi$_{3}$Bi$_{5}$, in line with the absence of CDW. Furthermore, the first-principles calculations identify the nontrivial $\mathbb{Z}_2$ topological properties for those bands crossing the Fermi level, accompanied by several local band inversions. Our results suppose CsTi$_{3}$Bi$_{5}$ as a complementary platform to explore the superconductivity and nontrivial band topology.

Electroluminescence from a p-type GaAs(110) surface was induced by tunneling electrons in a scanning tunneling microscope under both polarities of bias voltage. The optical spectra exhibit a polarity-independent luminescence peak at 1.47 eV resulting from the exciton recombination. However, the quantum yield of photon emission at negative bias voltage is two orders of magnitude weaker than that at positive bias voltage. Moreover, the luminescence at negative bias voltage shows the linear dependence of bias voltage, distinct from the rapid rise due to resonant electron injection at positive bias. Furthermore, the threshold bias voltage for electroluminescence at negative bias is nearly twice the bandgap of GaAs, not simply satisfying the energy conservation for the creation of an electron–hole pair. Through theoretical calculation, we propose an impact ionization model to nicely explain the newly observed electroluminescence at negative bias voltage. We believe that this mechanism of impact ionization could be readily applied to other nanoscale optoelectronics including 2D semiconductors and 1D nanostructures.

We report two new members of V-based kagome metals CsV$_{6}$Sb$_{6}$ and CsV$_{8}$Sb$_{12}$. The most striking structural feature of CsV$_{6}$Sb$_{6}$ is the V kagome bilayers. For CsV$_{8}$Sb$_{12}$, there is an intergrowth of two-dimensional V kagome layers and one-dimensional V chains, and the latter ones lead to the orthorhombic symmetry of this material. Further measurements indicate that these two materials exhibit metallic and Pauli paramagnetic behaviors. More importantly, different from CsV$_{3}$Sb$_{5}$, the charge density wave state and superconductivity do not emerge in CsV$_{6}$Sb$_{6}$ and CsV$_{8}$Sb$_{12}$ when temperature is above 2 K. Small magnetoresistance with saturation behavior and linear field dependence of Hall resistivity at high field and low temperature suggest that the carriers in both materials should be uncompensated with much different concentrations. The discovery of these two new V-based kagome metals sheds light on the exploration of correlated topological materials based on kagome lattice.