[1] | Ohtomo A and Hwang H Y 2004 Nature 427 423 |

[2] | Herranz G, Basletic M, Bibes M, Ranchal R, Hamzic A, Tafra E, Bouzehouane K, Jacquet E, Contour J P, Barthélémy A, and Fert A 2006 Phys. Rev. B 73 064403 |

[3] | Kalisky B, Bert J A, Klopfer B B, Bell C, Sato H K, Hosoda M, Hikita Y, Hwang H Y, and Moler K A 2012 Nat. Commun. 3 922 |

[4] | Feng Y Q, Jin K J, Ge C, He X, Gu L, Yang Z Z, Guo H Z, Wan Q, He M, Lu H B, and Yang G Z 2016 Chin. Phys. Lett. 33 076801 |

[5] | Dijkkamp D, Venkatesan T, Wu X D, Shaheen S A, Jisrawi N, Minlee Y H, McLean W L, and Croft M 1987 Appl. Phys. Lett. 51 619 |

[6] | Bert J A, Kalisky B, Bell C, Kim M, Hikita Y, Hwang H Y, and Moler K A 2011 Nat. Phys. 7 767 |

[7] | Ma Y, Niu J, Xing W, Yao Y, Cai R, Sun J, Xie X C, Lin X, and Han W 2020 Chin. Phys. Lett. 37 117401 |

[8] | Liu C, Yan X, Jin D, Ma Y, Hsiao H W, Lin Y, Bretz-Sullivan T M, Zhou X, Pearson J, Fisher B, Jiang J S, Han W, Zuo J M, Wen J, Fong D D, Sun J, Zhou H, and Bhattacharya A 2021 Science 371 716 |

[9] | Gao Q, Zhao Y, Zhou X J, and Zhu Z 2021 Chin. Phys. Lett. 38 077401 |

[10] | Anh L D, Kaneta S, Tokunaga M, Seki M, Tabata H, Tanaka M, and Ohya S 2020 Adv. Mater. 32 1906003 |

[11] | Lu D, Baek D J, Hong S S, Kourkoutis L F, Hikita Y, and Hwang H Y 2016 Nat. Mater. 15 1255 |

[12] | Cantoni C, Gazquez J, Granozio F M, Oxley M P, Varela M, Lupini A R, Pennycook S J, Aruta C, di Uccio U S, Perna P, and Maccariello D 2012 Adv. Mater. 24 3952 |

[13] | Bark C W, Sharma P, Wang Y, Baek S H, Lee S, Ryu S, Folkman C M, Paudel T R, Kumar A, Kalinin S V, Sokolov A, Tsymbal E Y, Rzchowski M S, Gruverman A, and Eom C B 2012 Nano Lett. 12 1765 |

[14] | Huang Z, Han K, Zeng S, Motapothula M, Borisevich A Y, Ghosh S, Lu W, Li C, Zhou W, Liu Z, Coey M, Venkatesan T, and Ariando 2016 Nano Lett. 16 2307 |

[15] | Zhang D, Lou W, Miao M, Zhang S C, and Chang K 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 156402 |

[16] | Kalabukhov A, Gunnarsson R, Börjesson J, Olsson E, Claeson T, and Winkler D 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 121404 |

[17] | Herranz G, Basletic M, Bibes M, Carretero C, Tafra E, Jacquet E, Bouzehouane K, Deranlot C, Hamzic A, Broto J M, Barthelemy A, and Fert A 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 216803 |

[18] | Caviglia A D, Gariglio S, Cancellieri C, Sacepe B, Fete A, Reyren N, Gabay M, Morpurgo A F, and Triscone J M 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 236802 |

[19] | Breckenfeld E, Bronn N, Karthik J, Damodaran A R, Lee S, Mason N, and Martin L W 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 196804 |

[20] | Nakagawa N, Hwang H Y, and Muller D A 2006 Nat. Mater. 5 204 |

[21] | Chen Y Z, Bovet N, Trier F, Christensen D V, Qu F M, Andersen N H, Kasama T, Zhang W, Giraud R, Dufouleur J, Jespersen T S, Sun J R, Smith A, Nygard J, Lu L, Buchner B, Shen B G, Linderoth S, and Pryds N 2013 Nat. Commun. 4 1371 |

[22] | Antoro I D and Kawae T 2021 ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 10 083005 |

[23] | Gagnidze T, Ma H, Cancellieri C, Bona G L, and La M F 2019 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 20 456 |

[24] | Takahashi R and Lippmaa M 2020 ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces 12 25042 |

[25] | Sayle D C and Watson G W 2001 J. Phys. Chem. 105 5506 |

[26] | Ron A, Hevroni A, Maniv E, Mograbi M, Jin L, Jia C L, Urban K W, Markovich G, and Dagan Y 2017 Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4 1700688 |

[27] | Wu M K, Ashburn J R, Torng C J, Hor P H, Meng R L, Gao L, Huang Z J, Wang Y Q, and Chu C W 1987 Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 908 |

[28] | Zhao Z X, Chen L Q, Yang Q S, Huang Y H, Chen G H, Tang R M, Liu G R, Cui C G, Chen L, Wang L H, Guo S Q, Li S L, and Bi J Q 1987 Kexue Tongbao 32 661 (in Chinese) |

[29] | Cava R J, Batlogg B, Vandover R B, Murphy D W, Sunshine S, Siegrist T, Remeika J P, Rietman E A, Zahurak S, and Espinosa G P 1987 Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 1676 |

[30] | Jorgensen J D, Veal B W, Paulikas A P, Nowicki L J, Crabtree G W, Claus H, and Kwok W K 1990 Phys. Rev. B 41 1863 |

[31] | Wen J G, Traeholt C, and Zandbergen H W 1993 Physica C 205 354 |

[32] | Kresse G and Furthmuller J 1996 Comput. Mater. Sci. 6 15 |

[33] | Perdew J P, Burke K, and Ernzerhof M 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 1396 |

[34] | Kresse G and Joubert D 1999 Phys. Rev. B 59 1758 |

[35] | Monkhorst H J and Pack J D 1976 Phys. Rev. B 13 5188 |

[36] | Matula R A 1979 J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8 1147 |

[37] | Wang Z C, Chen L, Li S S, Ying J S, Tang F, Gao G Y, Fang Y, Zhao W, Cortie D, Wang X, and Zheng R K 2021 npj Quantum Mater. 6 53 |

[38] | Tufte O N and Chapman P W 1967 Phys. Rev. 155 796 |

[39] | Szot K, Speier W, Carius R, Zastrow U, and Beyer W 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 075508 |

[40] | Jalan B, Stemmer S, Mack S, and Allen S J 2010 Phys. Rev. B 82 081103 |

[41] | Chen Y Z, Trier F, Wijnands T et al. 2015 Nat. Mater. 14 801 |

[42] | Zhang J, Ji W J, Xu J, Geng X Y, Zhou J, Gu Z B, Yao S H, and Zhang S T 2017 Sci. Adv. 3 e1701473 |

[43] | Cao M, Xiong D B, Yang L, Li S, Xie Y, Guo Q, Li Z, Adams H, Gu J, Fan T, Zhang X, and Zhang D 2019 Adv. Funct. Mater. 29 1806792 |

[44] | Lee K, Kim S W, Toda Y, Matsuishi S, and Hosono H 2013 Nature 494 336 |

[45] | Zhang J, Ok J M, Pai Y Y, Lapano J, Skoropata E, Mazza A R, Li H, Huon A, Yoon S, Lawrie B, Brahlek M, Ward T Z, Eres G, Miao H, and Lee H N 2021 Phys. Rev. B 104 L161404 |

[46] | Rubi K, Gosteau J, Serra R, Han K, Zeng S, Huang Z, Warot-Fonrose B, Arras R, Snoeck E, A, Goiran M, and Escoffier W 2020 npj Quantum Mater. 5 9 |

[47] | Kim M, Bell C, Kozuka Y, Kurita M, Hikita Y, and Hwang H Y 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 106801 |

[48] | Hill D M, Meyer H M, and Weaver J H 1989 J. Appl. Phys. 65 4943 |

[49] | Schuetz P, Christensen D V, Borisov V, Pfaff F, Scheiderer P, Dudy L, Zapf M, Gabel J, Chen Y Z, Pryds N, Rogalev V A, Strocov V N, Schlueter C, Lee T L, Jeschke H O, Valenti R, Sing M, and Claessen R 2017 Phys. Rev. B 96 161409 |