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Volume 34 Issue 9
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GENERAL
Discovery of Fractionalized Neutral Spin-1/2 Excitation of Topological Order
Xiao-Gang Wen
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 090101 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/090101
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Soliton Solutions to the Coupled Gerdjikov–Ivanov Equation with Rogue-Wave-Like Phenomena
Jian-Bing Zhang, Ying-Yin Gongye, Shou-Ting Chen
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 090201 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/090201
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Bilinear forms of the coupled Gerdjikov–Ivanov equation are derived. The $N$-soliton solutions to the equation are obtained by Hirota's method. It is interesting that the two-soliton solutions can generate the rogue-wave-like phenomena by selecting special parameters. The equation can be reduced to the Gerdjikov–Ivanov equation as well as its bilinear forms and its solutions.
A Multi-Symplectic Compact Method for the Two-Component Camassa–Holm Equation with Singular Solutions
Xiang Li, Xu Qian, Bo-Ya Zhang, Song-He Song
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 090202 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/090202
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The two-component Camassa–Holm equation includes many intriguing phenomena. We propose a multi-symplectic compact method to solve the two-component Camassa–Holm equation. Based on its multi-symplectic formulation, the proposed method is derived by the sixth-order compact finite difference method in spatial discretization and the symplectic implicit midpoint scheme in temporal discretization. Numerical experiments finely describe the velocity and density variables in the two-component integrable system and distinctly display the evolvement of the singular solutions. Moreover, the proposed method shows good conservative properties during long-time numerical simulation.
Sound Wave of Spin–Orbit Coupled Bose–Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattice
Xu-Dan Chai, Zi-Fa Yu, Ai-Xia Zhang, Ju-Kui Xue
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 090301 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/090301
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We study the phonon mode excitation of spin–orbit (SO) coupled Bose–Einstein condensates trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice. The sound speed of the system is obtained analytically. Softening of the phonon mode, i.e., the vanishing of sound speed, in the optical lattice is revealed. When the lattice is absent, the softening of phonon mode occurs only at the phase transition point, which is not influenced by the atomic interaction and Raman coupling when the SO coupling is strong. However, when the lattice is present, the softening of phonon modes can take place in a regime near the phase transition point. Particularly, the regime is widened as lattice strength and SO coupling increase or atomic interaction decreases. The suppression of sound speed by the lattice strongly depends on atomic interaction, Raman coupling, and SO coupling. Furthermore, we find that the sound speed in plane wave phase regime and zero-momentum phase regime behaves with very different characteristics as Raman coupling and SO coupling change. In zero-momentum phase regime, sound speed monotonically increases/decreases with Raman coupling/SO coupling, while in plane wave phase regime, sound speed can either increase or decrease with Raman coupling and SO coupling, which depends on atomic interaction.
Space-to-Ground Quantum Key Distribution Using a Small-Sized Payload on Tiangong-2 Space Lab
Sheng-Kai Liao, Jin Lin, Ji-Gang Ren, Wei-Yue Liu, Jia Qiang, Juan Yin, Yang Li, Qi Shen, Liang Zhang, Xue-Feng Liang, Hai-Lin Yong, Feng-Zhi Li, Ya-Yun Yin, Yuan Cao, Wen-Qi Cai, Wen-Zhuo Zhang, Jian-Jun Jia, Jin-Cai Wu, Xiao-Wen Chen, Shan-Cong Zhang, Xiao-Jun Jiang, Jian-Feng Wang, Yong-Mei Huang, Qiang Wang, Lu Ma, Li Li, Ge-Sheng Pan, Qiang Zhang, Yu-Ao Chen, Chao-Yang Lu, Nai-Le Liu, Xiongfeng Ma, Rong Shu, Cheng-Zhi Peng, Jian-Yu Wang, Jian-Wei Pan
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 090302 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/090302
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Quantum technology establishes a foundation for secure communication via quantum key distribution (QKD). In the last two decades, the rapid development of QKD makes a global quantum communication network feasible. In order to construct this network, it is economical to consider small-sized and low-cost QKD payloads, which can be assembled on satellites with different sizes, such as space stations. Here we report an experimental demonstration of space-to-ground QKD using a small-sized payload, from Tiangong-2 space lab to Nanshan ground station. The 57.9-kg payload integrates a tracking system, a QKD transmitter along with modules for synchronization, and a laser communication transmitter. In the space lab, a 50 MHz vacuum + weak decoy-state optical source is sent through a reflective telescope with an aperture of 200 mm. On the ground station, a telescope with an aperture of 1200 mm collects the signal photons. A stable and high-transmittance communication channel is set up with a high-precision bidirectional tracking system, a polarization compensation module, and a synchronization system. When the quantum link is successfully established, we obtain a key rate over 100 bps with a communication distance up to 719 km. Together with our recent development of QKD in daylight, the present demonstration paves the way towards a practical satellite-constellation-based global quantum secure network with small-sized QKD payloads.
Effects of Homogeneous Plasma on Strong Gravitational Lensing of Kerr Black Holes
Chang-Qing Liu, Chi-Kun Ding, Ji-Liang Jing
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 090401 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/090401
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Considering the Kerr black hole surrounded by a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma medium, we study the strong gravitational lensing on the equatorial plane of the Kerr black hole. It is found that the presence of the uniform plasma can increase the photon-sphere radius $r_{\rm ps}$, the coefficients $\bar{a}$ and $\bar{b}$, the angular position of the relativistic images ($\theta_{\infty}$), the deflection angle $\alpha(\theta)$ and the angular separation $s$. However, the relative magnitude $r_{\rm m}$ decreases in the presence of the uniform plasma medium. It is also shown that the impact of the uniform plasma on the effect of strong gravitational lensing becomes smaller as the spin of the Kerr black hole increases in the prograde orbit ($a>0$). In particular, for the extreme black hole ($a=0.5$), the effect of strong gravitational lensing in the homogeneous plasma medium is the same as the case in vacuum for the prograde orbit.
Direct Digital Frequency Control Based on the Phase Step Change Characteristic between Signals
Zhao-Min Jia, Xu-Hai Yang, Bao-Qi Sun, Xiao-Ping Zhou, Bo Xiang, Xin-Yu Dou
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 090601 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/090601
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We present a new digital phase lock technology to achieve the frequency control and transformation through high precision multi-cycle group synchronization between signals without the frequency transformation circuit. In the case of digital sampling, the passing zero point of the phase of the controlled signal has the phase step characteristic, the phase step of the passing zero point is monotonic continuous with high resolution in the phase lock process, and using the border effect of digital fuzzy area, the gate can synchronize with the two signals, the quantization error is reduced. This technique is quite different from the existing methods of frequency transformation and frequency synthesis, the phase change characteristic between the periodic signals with different nominal is used. The phase change has the periodic phenomenon, and it has the high resolution step value. With the application of the physical law, the noise is reduced because of simplifying frequency transformation circuits, and the phase is locked with high precision. The regular phase change between frequency signals is only used for frequency measurement, and the change has evident randomness, but this randomness is greatly reduced in frequency control, and the certainty of the process result is clear. The experiment shows that the short term frequency stability can reach 10$^{-12}$/s orders of magnitude.
Transportable 1555-nm Ultra-Stable Laser with Sub-0.185-Hz Linewidth
Zhao-Yang Tai, Lu-Lu Yan, Yan-Yan Zhang, Xiao-Fei Zhang, Wen-Ge Guo, Shou-Gang Zhang, Hai-Feng Jiang
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 090602 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/090602
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We present two cavity-stabilized lasers at 1555 nm, which are built to be the frequency source for a transportable photonic microwave generation system. The frequency instability reaches the thermal noise limit ($7\times10^{-16})$ of the 10-cm ultra-low expansion glass cavity at 1–10 s averaging time and the beat signal of the two lasers reveals a remarkable linewidth of 185 mHz.
Terahertz Direct Detectors Based on Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers with Microwave Biasing
Shou-Lu Jiang, Xian-Feng Li, Run-Feng Su, Xiao-Qing Jia, Xue-Cou Tu, Lin Kang, Biao-Bing Jin, Wei-Wei Xu, Jian Chen, Pei-Heng Wu
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 090701 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/090701
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Terahertz (THz) direct detectors based on superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) hot electron bolometers (HEBs) with microwave (MW) biasing are studied. The MW is used to bias the HEB to the optimum point and to readout the impedance changes caused by the incident THz signals. Compared with the thermal biasing method, this method would be more promising in large scale array with simple readout. The used NbN HEB has an excellent performance as heterodyne detector with the double sideband noise temperature ($T_{\rm N}$) of 403 K working at 4.2 K and 0.65 THz. As a result, the noise equivalent power of 1.5 pW/Hz$^{1/2 }$ and the response time of 64 ps are obtained for the direct detectors based on the NbN HEBs and working at 4.2 K and 0.65 THz.
NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Collective Flows of $^{16}$O+$^{16}$O Collisions with $\alpha$-Clustering Configurations
Chen-Chen Guo, Wan-Bing He, Yu-Gang Ma
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 092101 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/092101
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The main purpose of the present work is to discuss whether or not the collective flows in heavy-ion collision at the Fermi energy can be taken as a tool to investigate the cluster configuration in light nuclei. In practice, within an extended quantum molecular dynamics model, four $\alpha$-clustering (linear chain, kite, square and tetrahedron) configurations of $^{16}$O are employed in the initialization, $^{16}$O+$^{16}$O around the Fermi energy (40–60 MeV/nucleon) with impact parameter 1–3 fm are simulated, and the directed and elliptic flows are analyzed. It is found that collective flows are influenced by the different $\alpha$-clustering configurations, and the directed flow of free protons is more sensitive to the initial cluster configuration than the elliptic flow. Nuclear reaction at the Fermi energy can be taken as a useful way to study cluster configuration in light nuclei.
FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY(INCLUDING APPLICATIONS)
Effects of Breaking Waves on Composite Backscattering from Ship-Ocean Scene
Jin-Xing Li, Min Zhang, Peng-Bo Wei
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 094101 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/094101
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The existence of the sea surface is bound to affect the electromagnetic (EM) scattering from marine targets. When dealing with the composite scattering from targets over a sea surface by applying high-frequency EM theories, the total scattering field can be decomposed into three parts in low sea states, namely, the direct scattering from the sea surface, the direct scattering from targets and the coupling scattering between the sea surface and targets. With regard to high sea states, breaking waves make the direct scattering from the sea surface and the coupling scattering more complicated. To solve this issue, a scattering model is proposed to analyze the composite scattering from a ship over a rough sea surface under high sea states. To consider the effect of breaking waves, a three dimensional geometric model is adopted together with Ufimtsev's theory of edge waves for the scattering from a breaker. In addition, the coupling scattering between targets and breaking waves is taken into account by considering all possible scattering paths. The simulated results indicate that the influence of breaking waves on the scattering field from the sea surface and on the coupling field is non-negligible, and the numerical results also show the effectiveness of the proposed scattering model.
High-Order-Harmonic Generation from a Relativistic Circularly Polarized Laser Interacting with Over-Dense Plasma Grating
Xia-Zhi Li, Hong-Bin Zhuo, De-Bin Zou, Shi-Jie Zhang, Hong-Yu Zhou, Na Zhao, Yue Lang, De-Yao Yu
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 094201 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/094201
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The simple surface current model is extended to study the generation of high-order harmonics for a relativistic circularly polarized laser pulse interacting with a plasma grating surface. Both exact relativistic electron dynamics and optical interference of surface periodic structure are considered. It is found that high order harmonics in the specular direction are obviously suppressed whereas the harmonics of the grating periodicity are strongly enhanced and folded into small solid angles with respect to the surface direction. The conversion efficiency of certain harmonics is five orders of magnitude higher than that of the planar target cases. It provides an effective approach to generate a coherent radiation within the so-called 'water window' while maintaining high conversion efficiency and narrow angle spread.
Cadmium Selenide Polymer Microfiber Saturable Absorber for Q-Switched Fiber Laser Applications
A. H. A. Rosol, H. A. Rahman, E. I. Ismail, N. Irawati, Z. Jusoh, A. A. Latiff, S. W. Harun
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 094202 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/094202
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We demonstrate the generation of a Q-switching pulse train in an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) cavity using a newly developed cadmium selenide (CdSe) based saturable absorber (SA). The SA is obtained by embedding CdSe nanomaterials into a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microfiber. It is incorporated into an EDFL cavity to generate a Q-switched laser operating at 1533.6 nm. The repetition rates of the produced pulse train are tunable within 37–64 kHz as the pump power is varied from 34 mW to 74 mW. The corresponding pulse width reduces from 7.96 μs to 4.84 μs, and the maximum pulse energy of 1.16 nJ is obtained at the pump power of 74 mW.
Leaky Modes in Ag Nanowire over Substrate Configuration
Yin-Xing Ding, Lu-Lu Wang, Li Yu
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 094203 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/094203
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By launching surface plasmons propagating along the Ag nanowire deposited on a substrate, we clearly observe three leaky modes using the Fourier imaging method. The effective refractive indexes, propagation lengths and electric field distributions of the modes are investigated, which indicate that the energy of the mode with a lowest effective refractive index is mainly distributed in the air, while for the other two modes, it is mainly distributed in the substrate and in the gap between the Ag nanowire and the substrate. These modes enable such a configuration to be used as a multichannel waveguide or highly directional optical antenna, which is of fundamental importance for optical device miniaturizations and photonic circuit integrations.
Geoacoustic Inversion Using Time Reversal of Ocean Noise
Ji-Xing Qin, Boris Katsnelson, Oleg Godin, Zheng-Lin Li
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 094301 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/094301
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We present a passive geoacoustic inversion method using two hydrophones, which combines noise interferometry and time reversal mirror (TRM) techniques. Numerical simulations are firstly performed, in which strong focusing occurs in the vicinity of one hydrophone when Green's function (GF) is back-propagated from the other hydrophone, with the position and strength of the focus being sensitive to sound speed and density in the bottom. We next extract the GF from the noise cross-correlation function measured by two hydrophones with 8025-m distance in the Shallow Water '06 experiment. After realizing the TRM process, sound speed and density in the bottom are inverted by optimizing focusing of the back-propagated GF. The passive inversion method is inherently environmentally friendly and low-cost.
PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES
Heat Flux on EAST Divertor Plate in H-mode with LHCD/LHCD+NBI
Bo Shi, Zhen-Dong Yang, Bin Zhang, Cheng Yang, Kai-Fu Gan, Mei-Wen Chen, Jin-Hong Yang, Hui Zhang, Jun-Li Qi, Xian-Zu Gong, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Wei-Hua Wang
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 095201 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/095201
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Based on the surface temperature measured by the infrared camera on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST), the heat fluxes on the lower outer divertor target plate during H-mode with the lower-hybrid wave current drive (LHCD) only and with the LHCD combined with the neutral beam injection (NBI) are calculated by the DFLUX code and compared. The analyzed discharges are lower single null divertor configuration discharges. In the case with the LHCD only ($I_{\rm p}\sim 400$ kA, $P_{\rm LHCD}\sim2$ MW), ELM-free appears after L-H transition with the peak heat flux on the lower outer target plate less than 1 MW/m$^{2}$. However, there is no ELM-free appearing after the L-H transition in the case with the LHCD+NBI ($I_{\rm p}\sim300$ kA, $P_{\rm LHCD}+P_{\rm NBI}\sim2$ MW). The results show that the peak heat fluxes on the lower outer target plate in the LHCD+NBI H-mode cases are larger than those in the LHCD H-mode under the similar auxiliary heating power. This is because the heat flux profiles of the lower outer target plate as a function of plate location in ELMing with the LHCD+NBI are narrower than those with the LHCD only. The results are consistent with the results in terms of the scrape-off layer width observed in the EAST.
CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES
A Bright Single-Photon Source from Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond Nanowires
Shen Li, Cui-Hong Li, Bo-Wen Zhao, Yang Dong, Cong-Cong Li, Xiang-Dong Chen, Ya-Song Ge, Fang-Wen Sun
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 096101 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/096101
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Single-photon flux is one of the crucial properties of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond for its application in quantum information techniques. Here we fabricate diamond conical nanowires to enhance the single-photon count rate. Through the interaction between tightly confined optical mode in nanowires and NV centers, the single-photon lifetime is much shortened and the collection efficiency is enhanced. As a result, the detected single-photon rate can be at 564 kcps, and the total detection coefficient can be 0.8%, which is much higher than that in bulk diamond. Such a nanowire single-photon device with high photon flux can be applied to improve the fidelity of quantum computation and the precision of quantum sensors.
New Insights on the Deflection and Internal Forces of a Bending Nanobeam
De-Min Zhao, Jian-Lin Liu
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 096201 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/096201
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Nanowires, nanofibers and nanotubes have been widely used as the building blocks in micro/nano-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting or storage devices, and small-scaled measurement equipment. We report that the surface effects of these nanobeams have a great impact on their deflection and internal forces. A simply supported nanobeam is taken as an example. For the displacement and shear force of the nanobeam, its dangerous sections are different from those predicted by the conventional beam theory, but for the bending moment, the dangerous section is the same. Moreover, the values of these three quantities for the nanobeam are all distinct from those calculated from the conventional beam model. These analyses shed new light on the stiffness and strength check of nanobeams, which are beneficial to engineer new-types of nano-materials and nano-devices.
Fluorescence Enhancement of Metal-Capped Perovskite CH$_{3}$NH$_{3}$PbI$_{3}$ Thin Films
Peng Sun, Wei-Wei Yu, Xiao-Hang Pan, Wei Wei, Yan Sun, Ning-Yi Yuan, Jian-Ning Ding, Wen-Chao Zhao, Xin Chen, Ning Dai
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 096801 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/096801
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We fabricate nano-structural metal films to improve photoluminescence of perovskite films. When the perovskite film is placed on an ammonia-treated alumina film, stronger photoluminescence is found due to local field enhancement effects. In addition, the oxide spacer layer between the metal (e.g., Al, Ag and Au) substrate and the perovskite film plays an important role. The simulations and experiments imply that the enhancement is related to surface plasmons of nano-structural metals.
CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES
Characterization of Interface State Density of Ni/p-GaN Structures by Capacitance/Conductance-Voltage-Frequency Measurements
Zhi-Fu Zhu, He-Qiu Zhang, Hong-Wei Liang, Xin-Cun Peng, Ji-Jun Zou, Bin Tang, Guo-Tong Du
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 097301 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/097301
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For the frequency range of 1 kHz–10 MHz, the interface state density of Ni contacts on p-GaN is studied using capacitance-voltage ($C$–$V$) and conductance-frequency-voltage ($G$–$f$–$V$) measurements at room temperature. To obtain the real capacitance and interface state density of the Ni/p-GaN structures, the effects of the series resistance ($R_{\rm s}$) on high-frequency (5 MHz) capacitance values measured at a reverse and a forward bias are investigated. The mean interface state densities obtained from the $C_{\rm HF}$–$C_{\rm LF}$ capacitance and the conductance method are $2\times10^{12}$ eV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$ and $0.94\times10^{12}$ eV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$, respectively. Furthermore, the interface state density derived from the conductance method is higher than that reported from the Ni/n-GaN in the literature, which is ascribed to a poor crystal quality and to a large defect density of the Mg-doped p-GaN.
Fast Electrical Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Based on AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor Aptasensor
Xiang-Mi Zhan, Quan Wang, Kun Wang, Wei Li, Hong-Ling Xiao, Chun Feng, Li-Juan Jiang, Cui-Mei Wang, Xiao-Liang Wang, Zhan-Guo Wang
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 097302 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/097302
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As one of the most important tumor-associated antigens of colorectal adenocarcinoma, the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) threatens human health seriously all over the globe. Fast electrical and highly sensitive detection of the CEA with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor is demonstrated experimentally. To achieve a low detection limit, the Au-gated sensing area of the sensor is functionalized with a CEA aptamer instead of the corresponding antibody. The proposed aptasensor has successfully detected different concentrations (ranging from 50 picogram/milliliter (pg/ml) to 50 nanogram/milliliter (ng/ml)) of CEA and achieved a detection limit as low as 50 pg/ml at $V_{\rm ds}=0.5$ V. The drain-source current shows a clear increase of 11.5 $\mu$A under this bias.
Fano Resonance Effect in CO-Adsorbed Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons
Gao Wang, Meng-Qiu Long, Dan Zhang
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 097303 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/097303
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Quantum interference plays an important role in tuning the transport property of nano-devices. Using the non-equilibrium Green's Function method in combination with density functional theory, we investigate the influence to the transport property of a CO molecule adsorbed on one edge of a zigzag graphene nanoribbon device. Our results show that the CO molecule-adsorbed zigzag graphene nanoribbon devices can exhibit the Fano resonance phenomenon. Moreover, the distance between CO molecules and zigzag graphene nanoribbons is closely related to the energy sites of the Fano resonance. Our theoretical analyses indicate that the Fano resonance would be attributed to the interaction between CO molecules and the edge of the zigzag graphene nanoribbon device, which results in the localization of electrons and significantly changes the transmission spectrum.
Improved Operation Characteristics for Nonvolatile Charge-Trapping Memory Capacitors with High-$\kappa$ Dielectrics and SiGe Epitaxial Substrates
Zhao-Zhao Hou, Gui-Lei Wang, Jin-Juan Xiang, Jia-Xin Yao, Zhen-Hua Wu, Qing-Zhu Zhang, Hua-Xiang Yin
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 097304 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/097304
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A novel high-$\kappa$ Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$/HfO$_{2}$/Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$ nanolaminate charge trapping memory capacitor structure based on SiGe substrates with low interface densities is successfully fabricated and investigated. The memory capacitor exhibits excellent program-erasable characteristics. A large memory window of $\sim $4 V, a small leakage current density of $\sim $2 $\times$ 10$^{-6}$ Acm$^{-2}$ at a gate voltage of 7 V, a high charge trapping density of $1.42\times 10^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$ at a working voltage of $\pm$10 V and good retention characteristics are observed. Furthermore, the programming ($\Delta V_{\rm FB}=2.8$ V at 10 V for 10 μs) and erasing speeds ($\Delta V_{\rm FB}=-1.7$ V at $-$10 V for 10 μs) of the fabricated capacitor based on SiGe substrates are significantly improved as compared with counterparts reported earlier. It is concluded that the high-$\kappa$ Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$/HfO$_{2}$/Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$ nanolaminate charge trapping capacitor structure based on SiGe substrates is a promising candidate for future nano-scaled nonvolatile flash memory applications.
Evidence of Electron-Hole Imbalance in WTe$_2$ from High-Resolution Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy
Chen-Lu Wang, Yan Zhang, Jian-Wei Huang, Guo-Dong Liu, Ai-Ji Liang, Yu-Xiao Zhang, Bing Shen, Jing Liu, Cheng Hu, Ying Ding, De-Fa Liu, Yong Hu, Shao-Long He, Lin Zhao, Li Yu, Jin Hu, Jiang Wei, Zhi-Qiang Mao, You-Guo Shi, Xiao-Wen Jia, Feng-Feng Zhang, Shen-Jin Zhang, Feng Yang, Zhi-Min Wang, Qin-Jun Peng, Zu-Yan Xu , Chuang-Tian Chen, Xing-Jiang Zhou
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 097305 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/097305
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WTe$_2$ has attracted a great deal of attention because it exhibits extremely large and non-saturating magnetoresistance. The underlying origin of such a giant magnetoresistance is still under debate. Utilizing laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with high energy and momentum resolutions, we reveal the complete electronic structure of WTe$_2$. This makes it possible to determine accurately the electron and hole concentrations and their temperature dependence. We find that, with increasing the temperature, the overall electron concentration increases while the total hole concentration decreases. It indicates that the electron-hole compensation, if it exists, can only occur in a narrow temperature range, and in most of the temperature range there is an electron-hole imbalance. Our results are not consistent with the perfect electron-hole compensation picture that is commonly considered to be the cause of the unusual magnetoresistance in WTe$_2$. We identify a flat band near the Brillouin zone center that is close to the Fermi level and exhibits a pronounced temperature dependence. Such a flat band can play an important role in dictating the transport properties of WTe$_2$. Our results provide new insight on understanding the origin of the unusual magnetoresistance in WTe$_2$.
Origin of Negative Imaginary Part of Effective Permittivity of Passive Materials
Kai-Lun Zhang, Zhi-Ling Hou, Ling-Bao Kong, Hui-Min Fang, Ke-Tao Zhan
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 097701 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/097701
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The anti-resonant phenomenon of effective electromagnetic parameters of metamaterials has aroused controversy due to negative imaginary permittivity or permeability. It is experimentally found that the negative imaginary permittivity can occur for the natural passive materials near the Fabry–Perot resonances. We reveal the nature of negative imaginary permittivity, which is correlated with the magnetoelectric coupling. The anti-resonance of permittivity is a non-inherent feature for passive materials, while it can be inherent for devices or metamaterials. Our finding validates that the negative imaginary part of effective permittivity does not contradict the second law of thermodynamics for metamaterials owing to the magnetoelectric coupling.
Effect of Droop Phenomenon in InGaN/GaN Blue Laser Diodes on Threshold Current
Xiao-Wang Fan, Jian-Ping Liu, Feng Zhang, Masao Ikeda, De-Yao Li, Shu-Ming Zhang, Li-Qun Zhang, Ai-Qin Tian, Peng-Yan Wen, Guo-Hong Ma, Hui Yang
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 097801 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/097801
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Electroluminescence (EL) and temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements are performed to study the internal quantum efficiency droop phenomenon of blue laser diodes (LDs) before lasing. Based on the ABC mode, the EL result demonstrates that non-radiative recombination rates of LDs with threshold current densities of 4 and 6 kA/cm$^{2}$ are similar, while LD with threshold current density of 4 kA/cm$^{2}$ exhibits a smaller auger-like recombination rate compared with the one of 6 kA/cm$^{2}$. The internal quantum efficiency droop is more serious for LD with higher threshold current density. The internal quantum efficiency value estimated from temperature-dependent photoluminescence is consistent with EL measurements.
CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Nonresonant and Resonant Nonlinear Absorption of CdSe-Based Nanoplatelets
Li-Bo Fang, Wei Pan, Si-Hua Zhong, Wen-Zhong Shen
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 098101 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/098101
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We present a comprehensive understanding of the nonlinear absorption characteristics of CdSe-based nanoplatelets (NPLs) synthesized by the solution-phase method and the colloidal atomic layer deposition approach through $Z$-scan techniques at 532 nm with picosecond pulses. The CdSe NPLs exhibit strong two-photon induced free carrier absorption (effective three-photon absorption) upon the nonresonant excitation, resulting in a remarkable optical limiting behavior with the limiting threshold of approximately 75 GW/cm$^{2}$. A nonlinear optical switching from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) with increasing the laser intensity is observed when coating CdSe NPLs with a monolayer of CdS shell to realize the resonant absorption. The SA behavior originates from the ground state bleaching and the RSA behavior is attributed to the free carrier absorption. These findings explicitly demonstrate the potential applications of CdSe-based NPLs in nonlinear optoelectronics such as optical limiting devices, optical pulse compressors and optical switching devices.
Temperature Impacts on Transient Receptor Potential Channel Mediated Calcium Oscillations in Astrocytes
Yu-Hong Zhang, Hui Liu, Ying-Rong Han, Ya-Fei Chen, Su-Hua Zhang, Yong Zhan
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2017, 34 (9): 098701 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/9/098701
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We computationally study the possible effects of thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels on the spontaneous calcium oscillations in astrocytes at various temperatures. Based on the previous model and the result of thermosensitive TRP channels' open probabilities, some meaningful conclusions are obtained. It is shown that the occurrence of calcium oscillations depends on temperature and the molar heat capacity difference between the closed and open channels ($\Delta C_{\rm p}$). The data indicate that calcium oscillations in astrocytes occurred in the ranges of 7$^{\circ}\!$C–11$^{\circ}\!$C and 27$^{\circ}\!$C–30$^{\circ}\!$C when $\Delta C_{\rm p}$ is 16 kJ$\cdot$mol$^{-1}\cdot$K$^{-1}$, and calcium oscillations only occur in the range of 27$^{\circ}\!$C–30$^{\circ}\!$C when $\Delta C_{\rm p}$ is 2 kJ$\cdot$mol$^{-1}\cdot$K$^{-1}$. In this study, the frequency decreases rapidly at temperatures ranging from 7$^{\circ}\!$C to 11$^{\circ}\!$C, and there is a contrary result in the range of 27$^{\circ}\!$C–30$^{\circ}\!$C.
28 articles