The dissipative and decoherence properties as well as the asymptotic behaviour of the single mode electromagnetic field interacting with the time-dependent squeezed vacuum field reservoir are investigated in detail by using the algebraic dynamical method. With the help of the left and right representations of the relevant hw(4) algebra, the dynamical symmetry of the nonautonomous master equation of the system is found to be su(1,1). The unique equilibrium steady solution is found to be the squeezed state and any initial state of the system is proven to approach the unique squeezed state asymptotically. Thus the squeezed vacuum field reservoir is found to play the role of a squeezing mold of the cavity field.

We propose a scheme for measuring the Wigner function of a two mode cavity field. The scheme bases on the interaction between the two-mode cavity field and three-level atoms. We find a simple relation between the Wigner function and the atomic population. One can obtain the Wigner function by measuring the atomic population with a micromaser-like experiment and doing a numerical integral. By using the two-mode Wigner function one can obtain the Clauser--Horne combination and test the Bell's inequalities. We test our equations with a two-mode entanglement state and the results are rather good.

We propose a protocol for implementation of nonlocal CNOT operation using a partially entangled channel and show that when partially entangled pairs are taken as quantum channels, the nonlocal CNOT operation can be implemented probabilistically by introducing a collective unitary transformation. The required resources for implementation of the nonlocal CNOT operation in this case are discussed. We also point out that the nonlocal CNOT operation can be used as a purification protocol to concentrate entanglement from an ensemble of partially entangled particles into a subensemble of maximally entanglement ones.

We study quantum dense coding between two arbitrarily fixed particles in a (N+2)-particle maximally-entangled states through introducing an auxiliary qubit and carrying out local measurements. It is shown that the transmitted classical information amount through such an entangled quantum channel is usually less than two classical bits. However, the information amount may reach two classical bits of information, and the classical information capacity is independent of the number of the entangled particles under certain conditions. The results offer deeper insight into quantum dense coding via quantum channels of multi-particle entangled states.

Based on the scheme of “hot”trapped-ion quantum computation proposed by SФrensen and MФlmer, we construct a set of multi-mode excited logic gates on trapped ions, which may be operated on arbitrary even number of ions selected randomly from a string of ions trapped in a linear trap. The gate speed may be made faster than that of the corresponding one-mode excited logic gate by adjusting appropriately the detunings of driving lasers with respect to the sidebands of vibrational modes and can be demonstrated in current experimental techniques.

Tunnelling of a two-level atom is investigated in the two photon mazer when the atom is initially prepared in a coherent superposition state and the cavity in various quantum states. For a strong coherent field, the tunnelling exhibits more regular oscillations but less remarkable switch effect than that in the one-photon mazer. It is discovered that in the presence of atomic coherence, the transmission probabilities in the ultracold regime are significantly different when the cavity field is initially in coherent, squeezed vacuum, even cat and odd cat states, respectively.

The external space we live in or the apparent dimension in the Kaluza--Klein model can be identified by using the right representation in quantum cosmology. The external dimension of the Freund--Rubin model is min(s, n-s), where s is the rank of the antisymmetric field strength in the model.

Screw instability of the magnetic field connecting a rotating black hole (BH) with its surrounding disc is discussed in coexistence with the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process and the magnetic coupling (MC) process. A scenario for kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) in x-ray binaries is proposed by introducing inductance components in the equivalent circuit for BH magnetosphere. It turns out that the period related to the screw instability is consistent with the observations of kHz QPO x-ray binaries.

Based on the difference between the Fermi distributions at zero temperature and at the finite temperature, we introduce the temperature-dependent three-body force (TBF) into the microscopic finite-temperature Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory (FTBHF). In terms of the meson-exchange current approach, i.e. the one boson exchange (OBE) approximation, the exchange of four important mesons π, ρ, σ and ω are considered. Using the FTBHF theory including TBF, we describe the critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition for symmetric nuclear matter and discuss its change trend with the increasing asymmetry parameter. Compared to the result excluding TBF, the value of the critical temperature turns out to be smaller.

A driving gauge method is performed to determine the separation between two spherical source masses in the measurement of Newtonian gravitational constant G. The experimental result shows that the uncertainty of determining the separation is about 0.35 μm, which would contribute an uncertainty of 7.3 ppm to the value of G.

Based on the Lagrangian density and covariant Legendre transform, we obtain the multisymplectic Hamiltonian formulation for a one-way seismic wave equation of high-order approximation. This formulation provides a new perspective for studying the one-way seismic wave equation. A multisymplectic integrator is also derived.

We calculate the capture cross sections of the ^{10}Be(n,γ) ^{11}Be reaction by means of the asymptotic normalization coefficient method and demonstrate the halo effects on the capture cross sections for the direct radiative neutron capture where a p-, s- or d-wave neutron is captured into an s-orbit or p-orbit in ^{11}Be by emitting an E1 γ-ray, respectively. The result shows that the enormous enhancement of the capture cross section is just due to the large overlap of the incident neutron wave with the extended tail of the halo, which is clearly illustrated by the reduced transition amplitude function.

A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator from an effective quark-quark interaction model is developed. Within this approach both the explicit and dynamical chiral symmetry breakings are analysed. A comparison with the previous results is given.

An evolution model of the chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma system has been established based on the Jüttner distribution function of partons. By studying the dilepton production of the system, we find that due to high initial temperature, a dominant contribution to dileptons with intermediate masses is provided by gluon density of the system as well as large gluon fusion gg → cc cross section in the intermediate mass region, quark--antiquark annihilation qq → ll and, especially, thermal charmed quarks from the gluon fusion gg → cc and quark--antiquark annihilation qq → cc.

DONG Ke-Jun, HE Ming, WU Shao-Yong, YUE Dong-Fang, YOU Qu-Bo, BAO Yi-Wen, GUAN Yong-Jing, ZHENG Yuan-Feng, YIN Xin-Yi, WANG Hui-Juan, LI Guo-Qiang, YANG Yao-Yun, XU Guo-Ji, HU Yue-Ming, JIANG Shan

The man-made calcium isotope ^{41}Ca is an ideal tracer for the study of calcium metabolism. We represent the first application of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement of ^{41}Ca tracer in China. The technique is being applied to the research field of cell messenger at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The sample preparation methods and the AMS measurements are discussed and some interesting results are presented.

The high-energy electronic-impact excitation cross section is directly proportional to the generalized oscillator strength (GOS) of the target atom. The generalized oscillator strengths of helium atom from the ground state to the excited states (2^{1}S, 2^{1}P and 3^{1}D) are calculated using the updated R-matrix codes within the first Born approximation. Our calculation results are in good agreement with the previous theoretical and experimental results at high incident energies. In order to treat the bound-bound and bound-continuum transitions in a unified manner, the GOS density is defined based on the quantum defect theory. We calculate the GOS densities of ^{1}S, ^{1}P and ^{1}D channels, namely the complete high-energy collision cross sections of electronic-impact excitations into all the n^{1}S, n^{1}P and n^{1}D excited states. In addition to high-energy excitation cross sections, a scheme to calculate the excitation cross sections for entire incident energy range is discussed.

We propose a novel atomic fountain clock which is compact and transportable. The clock is 60-cm in height. Its linewidth is expected to be 1.75 Hz, with accuracy 10^{-14}, stability 10^{-14} and signal-noise ratio 10^{3}. A hollow beam is applied as atomic wave-guide, which can increase the stability and the signal-noise ratio by one order. The hollow beam will not affect the accuracy of the clock, if the frequency shift due to the hollow beam is amended and the fluctuation of the hollow beam intensity is controlled to be smaller than 0.6%.

SiC films deposited with rf magnetron sputtering followed by electron beam alloying were irradiated by hydrogen ion with an energy of 5 keV and a dose of 1 x 10^{18} ions/cm^{2}. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was used to investigate the irradiation effects of hydrogen ion on SiC. The results show that hydrogen ion irradiation can cause preferential sputtering of component of SiC, and activated carbon can react chemically with hydrogen to form hydrocarbon species such as methane. The related mechanism is discussed.

Absolute generalized oscillator strengths (GOSs) for the two Rydberg excitations at 12.1 eV and 13.5 eV in C_{2}F_{6} have been determined as functions of energy loss and momentum transfer (K) at impact energy of 2.5 keV. The GOS profiles for these two Rydberg transitions to 3 p Rydberg orbital have the characteristic dipole-dominated shapes with a strong maximum at K = 0.

In-situ energy dispersive x-ray diffraction on ZnS nanocrystalline was carried out under high pressure by using a diamond anvil cell. Phase transition of wurtzite of 10 nm ZnS to rocksalt occurred at 16.0 GPa, which was higher than that of the bulk materials. The structures of ZnS nanocrystalline at different pressures were built by using materials studio and the bulk modulus, and the pressure derivative of ZnS nanocrystalline were derived by fitting the equation of Birch-Murnaghan. The resulting modulus was higher than that of the corresponding bulk material, which indicates that the nanomaterial has higher hardness than its bulk materials.

Three key factors in design of optical pupil filters with super-resolving are studied. For the same normalized spot size, the factor of sidelobe intensity is more important for designing filters in applications. Thus the phase-only filters do not always perform better than the transmittance filters which always have lower Strehl ratio. The drawback of lower central core intensity can be compensated for by the high power laser. The argument has been justified in our numerical experimental results with the simplest filter patterns.

A new concise method is presented for the calculation of the ground-state energy of the electromagnetic field and matter field interacting system. With the assumption of squeezed-like state, a new vacuum state is obtained for the interacting system. The energy of the new vacuum state is lower than that given by the second-order perturbation theory in existing theories. In our theory, the Casimir effect is attributed neither to the quantum fluctuation in the zero-point energy of the genuine electromagnetic field nor to that in the zero-point energy of the genuine matter field, but to that in the vacuum state of the interacting system. Both electromagnetic field and matter field are responsible for the Casimir effect.

The electromagnetically induced absorption and electromagnetically induced transparency spectra of degenerate two-level systems with a strong coupling laser were observed. The frequency detuning and intensity effect of the coupling laser were demonstrated simultaneously. A dispersion-like spectrum can be obtained when the coupling laser is situated at blue-side detuning. The absorption inversion was realized when the coupling laser intensity is small. The coherent resonance has a linewidth much narrower than the natural linewidth of the optical transitions.

Free spectral range of whispering-gallery (WG)-like modes in a two-dimensional (2D) square microcavity is found to be twice that in a 2D circular microcavity. The quality factor of the WG-like mode with the low mode number in a 2D square microcavity, calculated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique and the Padé approximation method, is found to exceed that of the WG mode in 2D circular microcavity with the same cavity dimension and close mode wavelength.

We report the improved performance of the conventional contact 1.3 μm GaInNAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). A new wet etching approach was applied in the fabrication of 1.3 μm GaInNAs oxide-confined VCSELs. The threshold current of single mode device is 1.0 mA. The multiple mode devices show very low threshold currents below 2 mA at 5-85°C, which were the best results for 1.3 μm GaInNAs VCSELs reported. Maximum single mode output power of 0.256 mW and the maximum multiple mode power of 0.883 mW were obtained at room temperature.

Based on a hybrid genetic algorithm, the bandwidth for distributed multi-pump Raman amplifier (DMRA) is optimized. Optimal results show that signal bandwidth Δλ can be evidently broadened by means of increasing the number of pumps, Δλ decreases with the increase of Raman gain and with the improvement of flatness property, and the hybrid erbium-doped fibre amplifier and DMRA can availably overcome the weakness of pure DMRA.

We report the investigation of the reduction of the group velocity propagation resulting from the steep change of the refractive index by the coherent population oscillation in a ruby crystal at room temperature. Slow light propagation is observed in a solid-state material at room temperature. The measured delay is about 2.314±0.005 ms, corresponding to a group velocity as slow as 43.215±0.094 m/s in a non-sinusoid modulated waveform. The influences of pulse duration on the delay and the reduction of light propagation are given.

In the all-optical switches using Mach-Zehnder interferometer side-coupled with a ring resonator, the switching power is quadratically reversely proportional to the resonator finesse in the high-finesse case. In order to enhance the resonator finesse, the loss rate a and the coupler reflectivity r should approach 1. Therefore, we propose a new configuration by inserting an amplifier into the ring to compensate for the losses in the ring and using a pumped nonlinear coupler instead of the ordinary coupler. The resonator finesse can be enhanced dramatically and the minimum switching power can be obtained.

Experimental investigations of nondegenerate ultrabroadband chirped pulse optical parametric amplification have been carried out. The general mathematical expressions for evaluating parametric bandwidth, gain and gain bandwidth for arbitrary three-wave mixing parametric amplifiers are presented. In our experiments, a type-I noncollinear phase-matched optical parametric amplifier based on lithium triborate, which was pumped by a 5-ns second harmonic pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG operating at 10 Hz, seeded by a 14-fs Ti:sapphire laser at 800 nm, was presented. The 0.85 nJ energy of input chirped signal pulse with 57-FWHM has been amplified to 3.1 μJ at pump intensity 3 GW/cm^{2}, the corresponding parametric gain reached 3.6 x 10^{3}, the 53 nm-FWHM gain spectrum bandwidth of output signal has been obtained. The large gain and broad gain bandwidth, which have been confirmed experimentally, provide great potentials to amplify efficiently the broad bandwidth femtosecond light pulses to generate new extremes in power, intensity, and pulse duration using optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers pumped by powerful nanosecond systems.

We report the generation of tunable mid-infrared optical pulses using all-solid-state pumped optical parametric oscillator in a periodically poled lithium niobate. Several ways were used to lower the threshold, resulting in a mean threshold as low as 6.5 mW and an achievement of wavelength conversion in the 2.77-4.04 μm spectral range. Continuous tuning range from 2.97 to 3.25 μm was achieved. The maximum idler output power of 466 mW at the wavelength of 3.41 μm was obtained, which represents an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 19% from incident pump power to the idler output.

We report theoretically on the engineering of photonic crystal impurity bands to realize multiple channelled optical switches. The mechanism is based on the confinement of the impurity band in a photonic quantum-well structure, leading to N-quantized confined states coming from N-coupled defects. Due to the strong localization of electromagnetic wave at defect regions, the transmission of confined states are greatly dependent on the defects and then multiple channelled optical switches can be realized by slightly changing the defects by a control light. The dependence of the threshold of such a switch on the layer number of photonic barriers is also given.

A 3-dB multimode interference optical coupler based on rib waveguides with trapezoidal cross section was designed and fabricated on silicon-on-insulator wafer. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) anisotropic chemical etching of silicon was used to fabricate the waveguides to obtain smooth interface. A modified finite-difference beam propagation method was used to simulate the multimode rib waveguide with slope interfaces. The rms roughness of etching interface is as small as 1.49 nm. The propagation loss of the waveguide is 1.3 dB/cm at wavelength of 1.55 μm. The fabricated 3-dB coupler has a good uniformity of 0.2 dB.

A numerical method is developed to analyse and to correct the diffraction effect in the measurement of acoustic nonlinearity parameter B/A at high frequencies. By using the KZK nonlinear equation and the superposition approach of Gaussian beams, an analytical model is derived to describe the second harmonic generation through multi-layer medium SiO_{2}/liquid specimen/SiO_{2}. Frequency dependence of the nonlinear characterization curve for water in 110-155 MHz is numerically and experimentally investigated. With the measured dip position and the new model, values of B/A for water are evaluated. The results show that the present method can effectively correct the diffraction effect in the measurement.

A virtual complex source approach has been developed to calculate numerically the ultrasound field generated by a rectangular planar source with high efficiency. The sound field can be treated as the resultant sound pressure from a set of complex virtual sources located at a complex distance, and then by exploiting the integrability of Gaussian function, a substantial analytical reduction to single integral is derived for the second-order field of the sum-, difference-frequency and second harmonic components. The validity of this fast field scheme is confirmed by comparison of numerical results and the experimental data published previously.

Based on the exact solution of start-up flow of Maxwell fluids in a long circular straight pipe, the effect of viscosity on the time of flow establishment is analysed. It is found that the viscosity of Maxwell fluids plays a dual role. A key parameter is the dimensionless relaxation time λ. For 0 < λ < 0.0432, the viscosity mainly plays the same role as in Newtonian fluids, and the time of flow establishment decreases with the increasing viscosity; for λ > 0.0432, the viscosity mainly plays a role of strengthening the oscillation, and the time of flow establishment increases with the incremental viscosity.

A quasi-analytical model, i.e. the fractal model, for the transverse thermal dispersion conductivity in porous media is presented based on the fractal characteristics of tortuous flow paths/streamlines in porous media. The fractal dimension of tortuous flow paths, the spatial deviation velocity and the transverse thermal dispersion conductivity are derived. The proposed model is expressed as functions of the fractal dimension of tortuous flow paths/streamlines, Peclet number, porosity and structural parameters. The present results are compared with those from the existing correlation, and good agreement is found between the present model predictions and those from the existing correlation.

Various dusty voids are observed in a gas discharge dusty plasma system. They appear at the earlier stage of particle growth. Both the regular and irregular voids are observed in two and three dimensions. Regular voids observed in two dimensions include circular shapes and thin ring shapes. Regular voids in three dimensions appear dome-shaped and shell-shaped.

Acoustic rotation modes in complex plasmas are investigated in a cylindrical system with an axial symmetry. The linear mode solution is derived. The mode in an infinite area is reduced to a classical dust acoustic wave in the region away from the centre. When the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, the breathing and rotating-void behaviour are observed. Vivid structures of different mode number solutions are illustrated.

One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed to investigate the nonlinear evolution of electromagnetic instabilities excited by the electron temperature anisotropy in homogeneous plasmas with different parameters. The results show that the electron temperature anisotropy can excite the two right-hand electromagnetic instabilities, one has the frequency higher than Ω_{e}, the other is the whistler instability with larger amplitude, and its frequency is below Ω_{e}. Their dispersion relations are consistent with the prediction from the cold plasma theory. In the initial growth stage (prediction from linear theory), the frequency of the dominant mode (the mode whose amplitude is large enough) of the whistler wave almost does not change, but in the saturation stage the situation is different. In the case that the ratio of electron plasma frequency to cyclotron frequency is larger than 1, the frequency of the dominant mode of the whistler wave drifts from high to low continuously. However, for the case of the ratio smaller than 1, besides the original dominant mode of the whistler wave whose frequency is about 2.6 ω_{e}, another dominant mode whose frequency is about 1.55 ω_{e} also begins to be excited at definite time, and its amplitude increases with time until it exceeds the original dominant mode.

The shock is described by the Navier-Stokes equations of the electron and ion fluids, and coupled with Poisson's equation for the self-induced electric field. Profiles of the flow and electric variables in the weak or moderate shock front with or without current for different Debye lengths are presented. Comparison of profiles of flow and electric variables in the front for different heat flow modes is given.

A naturally occurring velocity shear layer was observed at the plasma edge of HT-7 tokamak in regular ohmic heated discharges. One fast reciprocating Langmuir probe was used to measure all quantities in the radial force balance equation for main ion, which enables us to present the first report about the radial force balance in the boundary region of the HT-7 tokamak. The sharp gradient of radial electric field and the reduced fluctuation correlation and turbulent particle flux characterized the edge velocity shear layer. It was found that the shear of turbulence poloidal velocity was dominated by the E x B flow shear and the poloidal rotation determined the structure of radial electric field profile and as a result the E x B flows.

An investigation is carried out on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of quasicrystals. The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities are determined for two- and three-dimensional quasicrystals. The results show that for optical linearity, two-dimensional quasicrystals are uniaxial, while icosahedral quasicrystals are optically isotropic. Meanwhile all quasicrystals, except those with 5, 5 m, N, Nmm (N = 8, 10, 12) symmetries, have no the first-order optical nonlinearity. The tensor scheme of the first-order nonlinear susceptibility is the same for these eight exceptional kinds of quasicrystals.

A continuous method is presented to deal with the discontinuous
physical properties on both sides of solid/liquid interface during the solidification process. Then single dendrite evolution in two and three dimensions is simulated by using this method. Multi-grain evolution is also simulated during solidification by the method. The method is easy to be understood and does not need all details of dendrite. The simulated results can reflect the random characteristic of dendrite evolution and the micro-segregation of solute.

PWO crystals doped with yttrium were grown with the Bridgman method in platinum crucible and by using an indigenously developed resistive heating furnace. After an exposure of γ-ray from a ^{60}Co source, with the dose rate of 15 rad/h for 20 h, the light output increases for about 15%, accompanied with vanishing of an optical absorption band at 420 nm. The excitation and emission spectra of PWO crystals were measured before and after irradiation with different dose rates. The optical absorption band at 420 nm was also found in the PWO sample annealed in oxygen-rich atmosphere. It is suggested that the absorption band at 420 nm is related to Pb^{3+} point defects existing in the PWO crystal. The unusual change of light output after irradiation probably results from the transformation of lead ions from Pb^{3+} to Pb^{2+}.

Hydrogen ions were implanted into separation by implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers near the oxygen-implantation-induced damage peak under different conditions of energy and dose. It was found that the implanted hydrogen ions not only accelerate the diffusion of oxygen atoms from the annealing ambience into the wafer but also cause an outward diffusion of oxygen atoms in the buried oxide (BOX) layer. Thus, greatly broadened buried oxygen-rich (BOR) layers were formed in our experiments, which are 18%-79% broader than the BOX layer of standard SIMOX SOI wafers under the same conditions of oxygen implantation. The mechanism was discussed. A potential low cost method to fabricate SIMOX SOI wafers is proposed.

Second-harmonic generation signals from a CuttbPc LB film deposited on metal (Al or Au)--glass substrates were investigated. It was observed that there were two second-harmonic peaks at the wavelength of 1060 and 1250 nm in the CuttbPc/Al film, but only one peak at 1050 nm in the CuttbPc/Au film. Meanwhile the surface electric potentials (SEP) at the interfaces of LB film/metals were also measured using a Kelvin probe. The SEP in the CuttbPc/Al decreases and eventually approaches a saturated value of -1.0 V as the film thickness increases, while the SEP in the uttbPc/Au is nearly zero. Based on the experimental results and theoretical analysis, it was considered that the space-charge-induced electric field makes a main contribution to the second-harmonic generation at 1250 nm in the CuttbPc/Al film.

Raman-scattering spectra in SnO_{2} nanorods with different diameters were obtained at room temperature and the low-frequency Raman peaks have been observed for the first time. It was found that the low-frequency peaks shifted to high frequencies as the nanorod diameter decreased. The size dependence of the low-frequency peaks in SnO_{2} nanorods can be identified by the surface modes among the confined acoustic modes of SnO_{2} nanorods, given by solving Lamb theory. In addition, the Raman peaks of SnO_{2} nanorods not only vary with the excitation wavelength (514.5 nm and 785 nm), but have their line-width broadening and the line shapes asymmetric as well. Moreover, some IR active modes became Raman-active induced by disorders such as local lattice imperfections and oxygen deficiencies in the thinner nanorods when the diameter of the nanorod decreased down to 15 nm or smaller.

Quantum-confinement effects on the binding energy and the linear optical susceptibility of excitons in quantum dots are studied. It is found that the binding energy and the linear optical susceptibility are sensitive to the barrier height and the dot size. For an infinite barrier, the binding energy of excitons decreases monotonically with the increasing dot radius, and the absorption intensity has almost the same amplitude with the increasing photon energy. For a finite barrier, the binding energy has a maximum value with the increasing dot radius, and the absorption intensity damps rapidly with the increasing photon energy. The effective mass ratio is also found to have an influence on the binding energy. The results could be confirmed by future experiments on excitons in quantum dots.

We have fabricated organic thin-film transistors using the small-molecule polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pentacene as an active material. Devices were fabricated on glass substrates by using rf-magnetron sputtered amorphous aluminium as the gate electrode, and gelatinized polyimide as the gate dielectric with physical vapour grown pentacene thin films pasted on it as the active layer, then using rf-magnetron sputtered amorphous aluminium as the source and drain contacts. Field effect mobility and threshold voltage is 0.092 cm^{2}/Vs and 14.5 V, respectively. On-off current ratio is nearly 10^{3}.

The binding energies of the ground state of excitons in the GaAs/Ga_{1-x}Al_{x}As square quantum-well wire in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated by using the variational method. It is assumed that the magnetic field is applied parallel to the axis of the wire. The calculations of the binding energy as a function of the wire size have been performed for infinite and finite confinement potentials. The contribution of the magnetic field makes the binding energy larger obviously, particularly for the wide wire, and the magnetic field is much more pronounced for the binding energy in a square quantum wire than that in a cylindrical quantum wire. The mismatch of effective masses between the well and the barrier is also considered in the calculation.

Frequency-dependent capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements have been performed on modulation-doped Al_{0.22}Ga_{0.78}N/GaN heterostructures to investigate the characteristics of the surface states in the Al_{x}Ga_{1-x}N barrier. Numerical fittings based on the experimental data indicate that there are surface states with high density locating on the Al_{x}Ga_{1-x}N barrier. The density of the surface states is about 10^{12}cm^{-2}eV^{-1}, and the time constant is about 1 μs. It is found that an insulating layer (Si_{3}N_{4}) between the metal contact and the surface of Al_{x}Ga_{1-x}N can passivate the surface states effectively.

New multi-component Yb:zinc--tungsten--tellurite glasses (70TeO_{2}-(20-x) ZnO-xWO_{3}-5La_{2}O_{3}-2.5 K_{2}O-2.5Na_{2}O-1.0 Yb_{2}O_{3} (x = 0, 15 mol%) have been presented. Thermal stability and spectroscopic properties of Yb^{3+} ions have been measured. The results show that TZW2 glass (x = 15 mol%) has thermal stability (T_{x} - T_{g} > 160°C with T_{x} being the onset crystallization temperature and T_{g} the glass transition temperature) better than TZN glass and that the stimulated emission cross-section of 1.32 pm^{2} for the ^{2}F_{5/2} → ^{2}F_{7/2} transition is higher than other laser glasses (QX, ADY, LY and FP), with the measured fluorescence lifetime of 0.93 ms and the broad fluorescence effective linewidth of 74.5 nm. Evaluated from the good potential laser parameters, TZW2 glass with both the minimum pump intensity (0.92 kW/cm^{2}) and gain parameter (1.23 pm^{2}ms) is promising for miniature solid fibre lasers or high-peak power lasers, as well as tunable lasers.

Er^{3+}-doped TeO_{2}-WO_{3}-ZnO glasses were prepared and the absorption spectra, emission spectra and fluorescence lifetimes were measured. With more TeO_{2} content in the glasses, the emission full width at half maximum (FWHM) increases while the lifetime of the ^{4}I_{13/2}level of Er^{3+} decreases. The stimulated emission cross-section of Er^{3+} calculated by the McCumber theory is as large as 0.86 pm^{2}. The product of the FWHM and the emission cross-section σ_{e} of Er^{3+} in TeO_{2}-WO_{3}-ZnO glass is larger than those in other glasses, which indicates that the glasses are promising candidates for Er^{3+}-doped broadband amplifiers. The Judd-Offelt parameter Ω_{6} shows close composition dependence of the 1.5 μm emission bandwidth. The more the TeO_{2} content is, the larger the values of Ω_{6} and FWHM.

Resistivity, thermal diffusivity, lattice and magnetic properties of double perovskite Sr_{2-x}La_{x}MnMoO_{6} are investigated with systematic change of La doping concentration x from 0.0 to 0.4. The insulator to metal phase transition is observed with increasing x above 0.3, suggesting that the extra electrons via substitution of La^{3+} for Sr^{2+} ions occupy mainly the conduction Mo-4d band. According to the insulator to metal phase transition, the thermal diffusivity of Sr_{2-x}La_{x}MnMoO_{6} enhances from 0.33 cm^{2}/s at x = 0.0 to 0.49 cm^{2}/s at x = 0.4. We further investigate the La doping effects on the lattice and magnetic properties.

A comprehensive electronic phase diagram is derived for mixed- valence gold chloride Cs_{2}Au_{2}Cl_{6} by means of high-pressure Raman spectroscopy. At all the temperatures investigated (100 K ≤ T ≤ 300 K), applications of pressure induce a phase transition from the mixed-valence (MV) state to a single-valence (SV) state. In the SV state, a broad Au-Cl stretching band appears at ～ 400cm^{-1} below ～ 200 K. We have interpreted the appearance of the band in terms of formation of the AuX^{-}_{2}-like local lattice distortion, or the bipolarons.

Structural measurements have revealed nonlinear changes of lattice parameters in the layered-perovskite manganites La_{2-x}Sr_{x}MnO_{4} with increasing Sr content; these changes can be well understood by means of interactions among the charge, crystal lattice and the orbital degree of freedom in this strongly correlated system. A probably spin-glass transition was detected for the first time in the x = 1.75 sample at the temperature of around 44 K. Fundamental properties of charge ordering appearing in the range of 1.5 ≤ x ≤ 1.75 have been observed at low-temperatures and are interpreted in terms of the Mn^{3+}-dz^{2} orbital ordering.

There exists strong magnetic agglomeration among Nd-Fe-B particles. Due to this effect, an applied field even up to 1350 kAm^{-1} still can not make the loose Nd-Fe-B powders to reach saturated magnetization. SEM images of a little amount of Nd-Fe-B powders were used to illustrate the agglomeration phenomenon. We believe that the general existence of misalignment grains in the magnetic force images of the sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet fabricated by die pressing with 1500 kAm^{-1} aligning field is a confirmation of the magnetic agglomeration.

The characteristic of wave fronts in anisotropic piezoelectric media is analysed by adopting the generalized characteristic theory. Analytical expressions for wave velocities and wave fronts are formulated. Apart from the ordinary characteristics, a new phenomenon, energy velocity funnel, is formed on the wave fronts of quasi-transverse waves in anisotropic piezoelectric materials. A three-dimensional representation of wave fronts in anisotropic piezoelectric materials is given for a better understanding of the new phenomena.

We investigate the evolution behaviour of electron-hole pair wavepacket in optically excited square quantum-dot arrays driven by in-plane (x-y plane) uniform electric field E (viz, E = E_{x}e_{x} + E_{y}e_{y}, e_{x}, e_{y} are unit vectors along x and y directions respectively), in the time domain. It is found that if the ratio of the x-component electric field E_{x} to the y-component electric field E_{y} is a rational p/q (p and q being coprime integer numbers), the wavepackets undergo a time-periodic breathing mode, with the period 2πp/ω_{Bx}, where ω_{Bx} = eE_{x}a/ħ, with a being the lattice constant of square dot arrays, ħ being Planck's constant, e being the electron charge. This finding provides a time-domain demonstration of the recent spectral result [Phys. Rev. Lett. {86} (2001) 3116].

Nanocrystalline silicon film (nc-Si) was prepared by pulsed laser deposition in different inert gas atmospheres such as He, Ne and Ar. The influence of inert gas pressure on growing rate of the film was investigated. The results show that with increasing gas pressure, growing rate first increases and reaches its maximum and then decreases; the gas pressure at the maximum of growing rate is proportional to the reciprocal of atomic mass of gas. The rate maximum is 0.315 Å/pulse when He gas pressure is 8.3 Pa. The dynamic process is analysed theoretically by means of resputtering from the film surface and scattering of ablated particles. Furthermore, our results are compared with those in the case of Ag target.

Patterned silicon nanocrystallite (SiNC) films were fabricated on (100) orientation p-type boron-doped silicon wafer by the hydrogen ion implantation technique and the anodic etching method. The efficient field emission with low turn-on field of about 3.5 V/μm at current density of 0.1 μA/cm^{2} was obtained. The emission current density from the SiNC films reached 1 mA/cm^{2} under a bias field of about 9.1 V/μm. The experimental results demonstrate that there are great potential applications of the SiNC films for flat panel displays. A surface treatment with hydrogen plasma was performed on the SiNC films and a significant improvement of emission properties was achieved.

We develop a model for heterogeneous nucleation catalyzed by oxidation on the droplet surface and the internal nucleation similar to surface oxidation. The fraction covered by oxide on the surface of the droplet is calculated as a function of time and temperature based on the chemical reaction dynamic and transition state theory, which is a reasonable expression for the oxidation behaviour of Sn-5wt.%Pb droplets. The continuous-cooling-transformation curves were computed using the above experimental results under the heterogeneous surface nucleation and the internal nucleation of droplets. Also, we predict the solidification behaviour of the droplet in gas-atomized spraying process using this model. The same model can be applied to predict the nucleation behaviour for any type of cooling schedule.

Considering the role of mechanical forces playing in the morphogenetic pattern formation, we propose a second-order differential equation for the growth and form of plants based on the turgor pressure field at the organ and cellular level. The solutions can well describe various kinds of morphological features of flowers under certain hypotheses. The plant morphology is considered as the spontaneous symmetry breaking of a circular growing boundary, while the employed hypotheses are subjected to further experimental confirmation.

A nonlinear money exchange model is revised and a correct master equation is derived. The evolution of the distribution is studied from direct numerical and analytical calculations. The stability of the final steady state of the system is investigated. It is argued that the final distribution is valid for a group of conservative money exchange models.