The exact periodic homoclinic wave of (1+1)D long--short wave equation is obtained using an extended homoclinic test technique. This result shows complexity and variety of dynamical behaviour for a (1+1)-dimensional long--short wave equation.

Considering the bilinear form of a (3+1)-dimensional soliton equation, we obtain a bilinear Bäcklund transformation for the equation. As an application, soliton solution and stationary rational solution for the (3+1)-dimensional soliton equation are presented.

Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given.

It is shown that the differential form of Friedmann equations of Friedman--Robertson--Walker (FRW) universe can be recast as a similar form of the first law T_{h}dS_{h} = dE + WdV of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon of FRW universe filled with the viscous fluid. It is also shown that by employing the general expression of temperature associated with the apparent horizon of an FRW universe and assumed that the temperature T_{m} of the energy inside the apparent horizon is proportional to the horizon temperature T_{m}= bT_{h}, we are able to show that the generalized second law of thermodynamics holds in the Einstein gravity provided T_{h}-T_{m}/r^{~}_{A} ≤(ρ+P^{~}).

The density inhomogeneity of a glass pendulum is determined by an optical interference method. The relative variations of the densities over a volume with sizes of 5×5×5mm^{3} are (0.64\pm 0.97)×10^{-5} and (0.99±0.92)×10^{-5} for the K9 glass and silica glass pendulum, respectively. These variations of densities contributing to the relative uncertainties of the Newtonian gravitational constant G are 0.20ppm and 0.21ppm in our experiment on measurement of G.

The mechanism of destabilization is studied for the rotating vortices (scroll waves and spiral waves) in excitable media induced by a parameter modulation in the form of a travelling-wave. It is found that a rigid rotating spiral in the two-dimensional (2D) system undergoes a synchronized drift along a straight line, and a 3D scroll ring with its filament closed into a circle can be reoriented only if the direction of wave number of a travelling-wave perturbation is parallel to the ring plane. Then, in order to describe the behaviour of the synchronized drift of spiral wave and the reorientation of scroll ring, the approximate formulas are given to exhibit qualitative agreements with the observed results.

By introducing a new type of solutions, called the multiple-mode wave solutions which can be expressed in nonlinear superposition of single-mode waves with different speeds, we investigate the two-mode wave solutions in Degasperis--Procesi equation and two cases are derived. The explicit expressions for the two-mode waves as well as the existence conditions are presented. It is shown that the two-mode waves may be the nonlinear combinations of many types of single-mode waves, such as periodic waves, solitons, compactons, etc., and more complicated multiple-mode waves can be obtained if higher order or more single-mode waves are taken into consideration. It is pointed out that the two-mode wave solutions can be employed to display the typical mechanism of the interactions between different single-mode waves.

We present a model for self-adjustment of social conventions to small perturbations, and investigate how perturbations can influence the convergence of social convention in different situations. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of social conventions is determined by not only the perturbations themselves but also the agent adjustment functions for the perturbations; and social conventions are more sensitive to the outlier agent number than to the strategy fluctuation magnitudes and localities of perturbations.

An analytical method is proposed to evaluate the Hugoniot parameters of preheated metallic materials by relating to its principal Hugoniot. Modelling calculations for 1100 Al, Cu and Ta show that the preheating lowers to a certain extent the shock impedance and the degree of lowering the shock impedance increases with increasing preheating temperature. The Hugoniots of 6061-T6 Al and TC4 preheated flyers at known preheating temperatures are evaluated, and are utilized to calculate the particle velocity and shock pressure using the impedance-match method based on the measured shock wave velocity and impact velocity reported in Z pinch-driven and three-stage gun-driven Hugoniot experiments. The presented method allows a reasonable evaluation for Hugoniot of the preheated metallic flyers.

All as-deposited AZO films by direct current magnetron reactive sputtering (DC-MS) exhibit ZnO characteristic (002) and (103) diffraction peaks. Especially, AZO films prepared at 200º C show a strongest (002) c-axis preferential orientation due to the minimum stress along the (002) orientation. The results show that larger stress easily induces a rougher surface. The film real and imaginary parts of dielectric constants show a sharp changes near the optical absorption edge due to the interband direct transition. The film blue and red shifts of the optical absorption edge can be explained in terms of the change of free-electron concentration in as-deposited AZO films.

We adopt a gauge-invariant definition to calculate the spin and orbital angular momenta of a so-called lth order Laguerre--Gaussian laser. The results reveal that photons on the axis of the beam may carry an orbital angular momentum of (l-1) besides l per photon. For the spin, we obtain a more reasonable expression proportional to the beam intensity instead of the gradient of the intensity as previously derived. We also discuss how to experimentally discriminate the angular momentum expressions given here and those commonly accepted in the literature.

The generalized liquid drop model (GLDM), including the proximity effects and centrifugal potential, and the cluster model with Cosh potential are used to study the half-lives of some Z=113 isotopes and their α-decay products. The experimental half-lives of ^{284}113, ^{283}113, ^{282}113 and their α-decay products are well reproduced by the two models when zero angular momenta transfer is assumed. For ^{278}113 and its α-decay products, both the GLDM and the cluster model could provide satisfactory results if we assume the α particle carry five units of angular momenta, which indicates that possible nonzero angular momenta transfer and need further experimental measurements with high precision. Finally, we show that half-lives of α-decay are quite sensitive to the angular momentum transfers, and a formula could be used to describe the correlation between α-decay half-life and angular momentum transfer successfully.

We perform a systematic calculation of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature within the framework of the Brueckner--Hartree--Fock approach with a microscopic three-body force. When applying it to the study of hot kaon condensed matter, we find that the thermal effect is more profound in comparison with normal matter, in particular around the threshold density. Also, the increase of temperature makes the equation of state slightly stiffer through suppression of kaon condensation.

AN Guang-Peng, LIN Cheng-Jian, ZHANG Huan-Qiao, LIU Zu-Hua, YANG Feng, ZHANG Gao-Long, ZHANG Chun-Lei, WU Zhen-Dong, JIA Fei, JIA Hui-Ming, XUXin-Xing, BAI Chun-Lin, YU Ning

Elastic scattering angular distributions of the ^{14}N+^{16}O system and the angular distributions of transfer reaction ^{16}O(^{14}N,^{13}C)^{17}F at E_{Lab}=76.2MeV and 57MeV have been measured and calculated by means of the exact finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation with the PTOLEMY code. The optical potential parameters for the weakly bound nuclear system ^{17}F+^{13}C have been deduced and applied to analyse the elastic scattering angular distributions of the similar systems ^{17}F+^{12}C and ^{17}F+^{14}N which are taken from literature. The result shows that the transfer reaction with stable projectile and target combination can be used as an alternative method to extract the optical potential parameters for the weakly bound nuclear system.

The expansion formulas in terms of complete orthonormal sets of Ψ^{α}-exponential type orbitals are established for the Slater type orbitals and Coulomb--Yukawa-like correlated interaction potentials of integer and noninteger indices. These relations are used in obtaining their unsymmetrical and symmetrical one-range addition theorems. The final results are especially useful in the calculations of multicentre multielectron integrals occurring when Hartree--Fock--Roothaan and explicitly correlated methods are employed.

Using a simplified multi-configuration Dirac--Fock (SMCDF) scheme based on the multi-configuration Dirac--Fock (MCDF) theory, we study the systematic variations of the fine-structure splittings of n^{2}D_{3/2,5/2} Rydberg series along the sodium-like isoelectronic sequence, i.e. the fine-structure orderings vary with increasing atomic number Z. The competition between the spin-orbit interactions and the exchange interactions due to relativistic effects of the nd orbital wavefunctions well explain such variations. Furthermore, the effect of Breit interactions which plays the secondary role is studied.

The signals of ultracold plasma are observed by two-photon ionization of laser-cooled atom in a caesium magneto-optical trap. A simple model has been introduced to explain the creation of plasma, and the mechanism is further investigated by changing the energy of a pulsed dye laser and the number of initial cooled atoms.

By using a semiclassical method, we present theoretical computations of the ionization rate of Rydberg lithium atoms in parallel electric and magnetic fields with different scaled energies above the classical saddle point. The yielded irregular pulse trains of the escape electrons are recorded as a function of emission time, which allows for relating themselves to the terms of the recurrence periods of the photoabsorption. This fact turns to illustrate the dynamic mechanism how the electron pulses are stochastically generated. Comparing our computations with previous investigation results, we can deduce that the complicated chaos under consideration here consists of two kinds of self-similar fractal structures which correspond to the contributions of the applied magnetic field and the core scattering events. Furthermore, the effect of the magnetic field plays a major role in the profile of the autoionization rate curves, while the contribution of the core scattering is critical for specifying the positions of the pulse peaks.

We investigate angular distributions of the transmitted 60keV and 120keV O^{3+} ions through nanocapillaries with 50nm diameter and 10μm length. The experimental results are in agreement with the `guiding effect' found by Stolterfoht et al. For different tilted angles of the nanocapillary membrane with respect to the beam, the angular distributions of the transmitted ions are measured by a one-dimensional micro-channel plate (MCP) detector. Moreover, the dependence of this guiding effect on the projectile energy is studied.

The relationship between the dispersion capability and the temperature of argon arc plasma at 1 atm is deduced in view of the plasma's refractive index equation. The results indicate that argon arc plasma has a normal dispersion and its dispersion capability is nonlinear to the plasma's temperature in a wide range of temperature and wavelength region. According to the results of numerical calculation, the preferred optical methods are believed to be suitable for the diagnosis of argon arc plasma in different temperature regions.

We present our experimental studies on the effects of the pumping sizes on THz radiation based on ultrashort light pulse optical rectification for high spatial resolution T-Ray imaging. Our experiments show that high spatial resolution T-ray imaging requires both thin THz emitter and sample, and rigorous tolerance of the gap between the sample and the emitter, as well as small pumping size which usually much smaller compared with THz wavelength. Such a small pumping size results in dramatic decrease of the THz wave power, which originates from strong diffraction of THz wave, the depolarization of the focused tightly pumping beam, the spatial filtering of the emitter exit-surface, and the strong phase-mismatching between the pumping and the high spatial Fourier components of the THz signal, rather than two-photon absorption

We consider a five-level atomic folding system, which involve two kinds of dressing mechanisms (the nested-cascade and the sequential-cascade) in interaction of three-dressing fields, the numerical results show that three-dressing fields are interchangeable under certain conditions, which can be considered as two four-level sub-system configurations a nested-cascade N configuration and a sequential-cascade inverted-Y configuration).

We have investigated vacuum Rabi oscillation of an atom coupled with single-mode cavity field exactly, and compared the results with that of the Jaynes--Cummings (J-C) model. The results show that for resonant case, there is no Rabi oscillation for an atom. For small detuning and weak coupling case, the probability for the atom in excited state oscillates against time with different frequencies and amplitudes from that of the J-C model. It exhibits that the counter-rotating wave interaction could significantly effect the dynamic behaviour of the atom, even under the condition in which the RWA is considered to be justified.

A high power cw all-solid-state 1.34-μm Nd:GdVO_{4} laser is experimentally demonstrated. With a diode-double-end-pumped configuration and a simple plane-parallel cavity, a maximum output power of 27.9W is obtained at incident pump power of 96W, introducing a slope efficiency of 35.4%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of diode-end-pumped 1.3-μm laser. With the experimental data, the thermal-stress-resistance figure of merit of Nd:GdVO_{4} crystal with 0.3at% Nd^{3+} doped level is calculated to be larger than 9.94W/cm.

A continuously tunable erbium-doped fibre laser (TEDFL) based on tunable fibre Bragger grating (TFBG) and a three-port optical circulator (OC) is proposed and demonstrated. The OC acts as a 100%-reflective mirror. A strain-induced uniform fibre Bragger grating (FBG) which functions as a partial-reflecting mirror is implemented in the linear cavity. By applying axial strain onto the TFBG, a continuously tunable lasing output can be realized. The wavelength tuning range covers approximately 7.00nm in C band (from 1543.6161 to 1550.3307nm). The side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is better than 50dB, and the 3dB bandwidth of the laser is less than 0.01nm. Moreover, an array waveguide grating (AWG) is inserted into the cavity for wavelength preselecting, and a 50km transmission experiment was performed using our TEDFL at a 10Gb/s modulation rate.

A self-starting, passively mode-locked all-fibre ring laser based on the homemade Er^{3+}/Yb^{3+ }codoped phosphate glass fibre is reported. Dual-pump sources were used to achieve the mode-locked operation in the experiment. The fundamental mode-locked pulse repetition rate is 10.67MHz. The pulse duration, assumed as the fit of hyperbolic secant pulse shape, is 5.82ps. We also observe the multi-pulse output of the fibre laser.

A new polarization-independent dual-wavelength fibre laser by fabricating a uniform FBG and a chirped FBG in a polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fibre (PM-EDF) is proposed and demonstrated. The wavelength spacing is 0.18nm and the optical signal-to-noise ratio is greater than 50dB with pump power of 246mW. Chirped FBG is used to make the reflectivity wavelengths of two PM-FBGs match easier. Since both EDF and FBGs are polarization-maintaining without splices and the two wavelengths are polarization-independent, the maximum amplitude variation and wavelength shifts for both lasing wavelength with 3-min intervals over a period of six hours are less than 0.2dB and 0.005nm, respectively, which shows stable dual-wavelength output.

We demonstrate a passively cw mode-locked Nd:LuVO_{4} laser operating on the quasi-three-level at 916nm with a Z-folded resonator. Using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) as the passive mode-locking device, we achieve stable cw mode locking with 6.7ps pulse duration at repetition rate of 133MHz and 88mW average output power under the pump power of 17.1W.

We propose a novel ring resonator configuration in a channelless photonic crystal. The proposed ring resonator utilizes the self-collimation effect and the bending and splitting mechanisms of line defects to route the propagation of light, instead of conventional indexed-guided waveguides or photonic crystal band gap waveguides. The finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) is used to investigate the characteristics of the ring resonator. The new design exhibits an ON--OFF contrast with an extinction ratio of more than 12dB, and has an ultra-compact footprint of 3.3×3.3μm^{2} when it operates at the optical communication wavelength λ=1.55μm. The design presented may find applications in the areas including ultra-compact optical switch and wavelength filer in integrated optical circuits.

We investigate the third-order optical nonlinearities in four novel porphyrin dimers (dimers A to D) and a monomeric porphyrin H_{2 }CPTPP measured by using the single-beam z-scan technique with a pulsed Q-switched Nd:YAG nanosecond laser at 532nm. All the samples show strong excited state absorption (ESA) and high value of χ^{(3)} in the ns domain at this wavelength. We perform a comparison between dimer A and its monomer H_{2 }CPTPP in their third-order optical nonlinearity, and discuss the relationships between the values of χ^{(3)} and the different bridging groups for all the dimers.

Different conical emission (CE) patterns are obtained experimentally at various incident powers and beam sizes of pump laser pulses with pulse durations of 7fs, 44fs and 100fs. The results show that it is the incident power but not the incident power density that determines a certain CE pattern. In addition, the critical powers for similar CE patterns are nearly the same for the laser pulses with the same spectral bandwidth. Furthermore, as far as a certain CE pattern is concerned, the wider the spectral bandwidth of pump laser pulse is, the higher the critical power is. This will hopefully provide new insights for the generation of CE pattern in optical medium.

We propose a novel optical bistable device (OBD) in frequency-domain with which we can perform optical bistable operations in a number of fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) which are included in the same OBD. Such an OBD may bring more opportunities in applications and, as an example, we show the possibility of using it in an FBG sensor demodulating system. By use of a tunable light source, consisting of a broad band source and a scanning fibre F-P (FFP), we demonstrate the above-mentioned operations experimentally.

We propose new coefficients for the ellmeier equations of 1.0mol % Mg-doped stoichiometric LiTaO_{3}. The extraordinary refractive indices for the wavelength range 0.5-4.0μm and for temperature 30-170°C are based on measured data derived from quasi-phase-matched (QPM) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) based on periodically poled Mg-doped stoichiometric LiTaO_{3} with a pump wavelength of 1064nm. The corrected refractive indices are in good agreement with our experimental data obtained from QPM OPO and SHG pumped at 1064μm at different temperatures.

A theoretical model for tunable Mach--Zehnder interferometers (TMZIs) constructed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PhC) is proposed. The 2D PhC consists of a square lattice of cylindric air holes in silicon. The TMZI includes two mirrors and two splitters. Light propagates between them employing a self-collimation effect. The two interferometer branches have different path lengths. Parts of the longer branch are infiltrated with a kind of liquid crystal (LC) with ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices 1.522 and 1.706, respectively. The transmission spectra at two TMZI output ports are in the shape of sinusoidal curves and have a uniform peak spacing 0.0017c/a in the frequency range from 0.26c/a to 0.27c/a. When the effective refractive index n_{eff} of the liquid crystal is increased from 1.522 to 1.706, the peaks shift to the lower frequencies over 0.0017c/a while the peak spacing is almost kept unchanged. Thus this TMZI can work as a tunable power splitter or an optical switch. For the central operating wavelength around 1550nm, its dimensions are only about tens of micron. Thus this device may be applied to photonic integrated circuits.

By introducing an adjustment waveguide besides the incident waveguide, zero-dispersion slow light with wide bandwidth can be realized due to anticrossing of the incident waveguide mode and the adjustment waveguide mode. The width of the adjustment waveguide (W_{2}) and the hole radii of the coupling region (r') will change the dispersion of incident waveguide mode. Theoretical investigation reveals that zero dispersion at various low group velocity v_{g} in incident waveguide can be achieved. In particular, proper W_{2} and r' can lead to the lowest v_{g} of 0.0085c at 1550nm with wide bandwidth of 202GHz for zero dispersion.

An analytical model of acoustic field excited by a pulsed-laser line source on a coated cylinder is presented. Surface wave dispersive behaviours for a cylinder with a slow coating are analysed and compared with that of a bare cylinder. Based on this analysis, the laser-generated transient response of the perturbed Rayleigh wave and the higher modes of steel cylinder with a zinc coating are calculated from the model using residue theory and FFT technique. The theoretical result from the superposed waveform of the perturbed Rayleigh wave and higher modes agree well with the waveform obtained in experiment. The results show that the model and numerical method provide a useful technique for quantitatively characterizing coating parameters of coated cylinder by the laser generated surface waves.

The starting point lies in the results obtained by Sedov (1944) for isotropic turbulence with a self-preserving hypothesis. A careful consideration of the mathematical structure of the Karman--Howarth equation leads to an exact analysis of all cases possible and to all admissible solutions of the problem. I study this interesting problem from a new point of view. New solutions are obtained. Based on these exact solutions, some physical significant consequences of recent advances in the theory of self-preserved homogeneous statistical solution of the Navier--Stokes equations are presented

We study the relationship between thermal conditions on the earth bottom boundary and the formation of Somali jet based on the Biot--Savart law and the data from National Centres for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). As the radiation from the Sun gradually moves from the southern meridian, the temperature on the surface of Somali Peninsular and Arabic Peninsular gradually increases. During the same period the surface temperature of the Northern Indian Ocean increases much slower. It is shown that this increase of the temperature difference between the land and sea is inductive to the formation and development of Rayleigh--Benard convection and leads to the increasing relative vorticity strength between positive and negative vertical vortices over the land and sea. According to the Biot--Savart law, increase of vorticity strength will correspondingly induce the horizontal velocity. A pair of positive and negative vorticity fields over the two Peninsulars and the sea surface is effective in forming and maintaining this current. This mechanism is referred to as the `Somali suction pump'. It draws air continually from the Southern hemisphere and releases it at the coastal area of Somali.

Breakup of spiral wave in the Hindmarsh--Rose neurons with nearest-neighbour couplings is reported. Appropriate initial values and parameter regions are selected to develop a stable spiral wave and then the Gaussian coloured noise with different intensities and correlation times is imposed on all neurons to study the breakup of spiral wave, respectively. Based on the mean field theory, the statistical factor of synchronization is defined to analyse the evolution of spiral wave. It is found that the stable rotating spiral wave encounters breakup with increasing intensity of Gaussian coloured noise or decreasing correlation time to certain threshold.

Low frequency (in comparison to ion plasma frequency) ion-acoustic shocks and solitons in superdense electron--positron--ion quantum plasmas are studied. The quantum hydrodynamic model is used incorporating quantum Bohm forces and Fermi--Dirac statistical corrections to derive the deformed Korteweg de Vries--Burgers (dKdVB) equation in weakly nonlinear limit. The travelling wave solution of dKdVB equation is presented and results are discussed in different limits. It is found that shock height increases with increase of quantum pressure, positron concentration and dissipation. Further, it is seen that the width of soliton decreases with increase of quantum pressure.

An estimation method of plasma density based on surface plasmons theory for surface-wave plasmas is proposed. The number of standing-wave is obtained directly from the discharge image, and the propagation constant is calculated with the trim size of the apparatus in this method, then plasma density can be determined with the value of 9.1×10^{17}m^{-3}. Plasma density is measured using a Langmuir probe, the value is 8.1×10^{17}m^{-3} which is very close to the predicted value of surface plasmons theory. Numerical simulation is used to check the number of standing-wave by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method also. All results are compatible both of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement.

We study the structural properties of a two-dimensional quasilattice constructed by covering of identical octagonal clusters. The covering cases and nearest-neighbour configurations are presented. A self-similar transformation is introduced to generate an octagonal covering model in a direct way.

Internal friction of nanocrystalline nickel is investigated by mechanical spectroscopy from 360 K to 120 K. Two relaxation peaks are found when nanocrystalline nickel is bent up to 10% strain at room temperature and fast cooling. However, these two peaks disappear when the sample is annealed at room temperature in vacuum for ten days. The occurrence and disappearance of the two relaxation peaks can be explained by the interactions of partial dislocations and point defects in nanocrystalline materials.

GaN-based laser diodes (LDs) with 399nm wavelength are grown on sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). Electroluminescence spectra of the fabricated LDs show that the LDs from some grown wafers failed to emit laser. The SEM and XRD results show the similar surface morphology and interface qualities of multi quantum wells (MQWs) and super-lattices between LDs that succeed and fail to emit laser. However, the cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements reveal a kind of optical defect rather than structural defect in un-emitted LDs. Further depth-dependent CL imaging observation indicates that such optical defects originate from the MQWs to the surface of LDs as a non-irradiative recombination centre that should cause the failure of laser emitting of LDs.

ZnO homojunction light-emitting diodes are fabricated on Si(100) substrates by plasma assisted metal organic chemical vapour deposition. A p-type layer of nitrogen-doped ZnO film is formed using radical N_{2}O as the acceptor precursor. The n-type ZnO layer is composed of un-doped ZnO film. The device exhibits desirable rectifying behaviour with a turn-on voltage of 3.3V and a reverse breakdown voltage higher than 6V. Distinct electroluminescence emissions centred at 395nm and 490nm are detected from this device at forward current higher than 20mA at room temperature.

We measure the transmission of O^{6+} ions with a higher energy of 60 keV (in turn a higher value of E_{p}/q) through capillaries in an uncoated Al_{2}O_{3 }membrane, and obtain agreements with previously reported results in general angular distribution of the transmitted ions and the transmission profile width variation with capillary tilt angle. The transmission fractions as a function of the tilt angle can be fitted to the semi-empirical Gaussian-like function well. Due to using uncoated capillary membrane, our ψ_{c} is larger than that using gold-coated one, in spite of our larger value of E_{p}/q, which suggests a larger equilibrium charge Q_{∞} in our experiment.

The compressibility, the temperature dependence of bulk modulus, the pressure dependence of normalized volume V/V_{0}, thermal expansion coefficient and Debye temperature of LaNi_{5-x}Al_{x} compounds are successfully obtained using the first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential (PW-PP) method, the EOSFIT6.0 software and the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The rapid decrease of relative lattice constant a/a_{0} shows that the deformation is easier in directions normal to the c-axis than that along it. The relationships between bulk modulus B and pressure at different temperatures are also analysed. It is found that the bulk modulus B increases monotonically with increasing pressure. Moreover, the pressure dependences of thermal expansion and Debye temperature are also successfully obtained. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data.

Based on the first-principles plane-wave basis pseudopotential calculations, we investigate mechanical properties and electronic structures of the hardest known oxide, cotunnite TiO_{2}. The calculated results show that cotunnite TiO_{2} has the highest bulk modulus (348 GPa) and hardness (32GPa) among the high-pressure phases of TiO_{2}, but its mechanical properties are not superior to those of c-BN. Moreover, the high hardness of cotunnite TiO_{2} can be understood from both the dense crystal structure (high valence electron density and short bond lengths) and the unusual mixtures of covalent and ionic bonding of Ti--O.

Electrical properties of individual self-assembled GeSi quantum dots grown on Si substrates are investigated by using conductive atomic force microscopy at room temperature. By controlling the bias voltage sweep in a certain fast sweep rate range, a novel current peak is observed in the current--voltage characteristics of the quantum dots. The current peaks are detectable only during the backward voltage sweep immediately after a forward sweep. The current peak position and intensity are found to depend strongly on the voltage sweep conditions. This kind of current--voltage characteristic under fast sweep is very different from the ordinary steady state current behaviour of quantum dots measured previously. The origin of this phenomenon can be attributed to the transient hole trapping in the potential well formed by the quantum dot sandwiched between the native oxide layer and the bottom Si substrate.

We investigate effects of nitridation on AlN morphology, structural properties and stress. It is found that 3min nitridation can prominently improve AlN crystal structure, and slightly smooth the surface morphology. However, 10min nitridation degrades out-of-plane crystal structure and surface morphology instead. Additionally, 3-min nitridation introduces more tensile stress (1.5GPa) in AlN films, which can be attributed to the weaker islands 2D coalescent. Nitridation for 10min can introduce more defects, or even forms polycrystallinity interlayer, which relaxes the stress. Thus, the stress in AlN with 10min nitridation decreases to -0.2GPa compressive stress.

We demonstrate that thin films with micro/nanometre controllable morphology can be fabricated by the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique which is a physical vapour deposition technique. In this technique, there are parameters which determine the morphology of the thin films: the incident angle, ratio of the deposition rate with respect to the substrate rotation rate, nature of the material being deposited, etc. We fabricate the morphology of column, pillar, helices, zigzag and study the parameters which determine morphology by given some examples of SEM.

We outline the experiments performed to gain further information about the structure and properties of cleaved InP surfaces. The experiments involved detecting the luminescence produced after cleaving thin InP plates within a high vacuum, by a process of converting the luminescence to an electrical signal which could be amplified and measured accurately. The experimental results show that the detected luminescence durations from cleaved InP are usually only about 10μs. It is believed that this time represents the time of travel of the crack with the actual recombination time being much shorter. Strong signals could also be picked up from cleaved InP in air.

We demonstrate active manipulating plasmonic signals with metal--nonlinear optical material--metal (M-NL-M) arrays consisting of slits with variant widths. The parameters of the M-NL-M array structure are derived by theoretical analysis of dispersion relationship. The splitting angle can be modulated by the incident light intensity, and verified by a nonlinear two-dimensional finite difference time domain method. The physical principle of this phenomenon is analysed from the phase of surface plasmon polaritons and Fabry--Pérot (F-P) resonance in slits

We present a theoretical study on the composition dependence of the surface phonon polariton (SPP) mode in wurtzite structure α-In_{x}Ga_{1-x}N ternary alloy over the whole composition range. The SPP modes are obtained by the theoretical simulations by means of an anisotropy model. The results reveal that the SPP mode of α-In_{x}Ga_{1-x}N semiconductors exhibits one-mode behaviour. From these data, composition dependence of the SPP mode with bowing parameter of -28.9cm^{-1} is theoretically obtained..

We introduce a one-dimensional spin injection structure comprising a ferromagnetic metal and a nondegenerate organic semiconductor to model electric current polarizations. With this model we analyse spin Coulomb dragging (SCD) effects on the polarization under various electric fields, interface and conductivity conditions. The results show that the SCD inhibits the current polarization. Thus the SCD inhibition should be well considered for accurate evaluation of current polarization in the design of organic spin devices.

We re-examine the classical one-dimensional transmission grating to explain the enhanced transmission in the surface impedance approximation. The nearly zero transmission and extraordinary transmission phenomena related to the surface plasmon are presented by analysing the scattering amplitude of waveguide mode at the output surface of grating. It is revealed that the transmission peaks are related to the Fabry-Perot factor and the interaction of surface plasmon and other diffractive orders.

The tunable omnidirectional surface plasmon resonance in the optical range is theoretically demonstrated in a cylindrical plasmonic crystal by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The cylindrical plasmonic crystal consists of an infinite chain of two-dimensional cylindrical metal--dielectric-dielectric-metal structures. The dispersion relation of the cylindrical plasmonic crystal is obtained by calculating the absorptance as a function of a TM-polarized incident plane wave and its in-plane wave vector. The omnidirectional surface plasmon resonance can be tuned from UV region to visible region by adjusting the thickness of the cylindrical dielectric layers. The absorption spectrum of the infinite chain of nanocylinders is also investigated for comparison.

A Schrödinger equation is solved numerically for a barrier in a quantum well and a quantum well in another well structure by the transfer matrix technique. Effect of structure parameters on the transmission probabilities is investigated in detail. The results suggest that symmetry plays an important role in the coupling effect between the quantum wells. The relationship between the width of the inner well and the resonant energy levels in well-in-well structures is also studied. It is found that the ground state energy and the second resonant energy decrease with increasing width of the inner well, while the first resonant energy remains constant.

We apply the effective-medium theory to a multi-component mixture system, by which the effective longitudinal and Hall conductivities can be calculated. We find that there is more than one threshold in the multi-component mixture, and the maximum number of thresholds is one less than the component number. Further, the thresholds are mainly dependent on the relative volume ratio of the components when the conductivity ratios between any two components are far larger or smaller than one.

We present the Peltier coefficient and thermal transport in quantum point contact (QPC), under the influence of external fields and different temperatures. Also we obtain the oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in external fields. Numerical calculations of the Peltier coefficient are performed at different applied voltages, amplitudes and temperatures. The obtained results are consistent with the experimental data in the literature.

High resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements have been carried out to study the superconducting gap in the (Ba_{0.6}K_{0.4})Fe_{2}As_{2} superconductor with T_{c}=35 K. Two hole-like Fermi surface sheets around the Γ point exhibit different superconducting gaps. The inner Fermi surface sheet shows larger (10~12 meV) and slightly momentum-dependent gap while the outer one has smaller (7~8meV) and nearly isotropic gap. The lack of gap node in both Fermi surface sheets favours s-wave superconducting gap symmetry. Superconducting gap opening is also observed at the M(π,π) point. The two Fermi surface spots near the M point are gapped below T_{c} but the gap persists above T_{c}. The rich and detailed superconducting gap information will provide key insights and constraints in understanding pairing mechanism in the iron-based superconductors.

The thermal stability of a triangular nanowire array under an external magnetic field is studied by the damage spreading technique. The results show that stability of the system may be enhanced by decreasing the spacing of magnetic cells (or increasing the storage density). The existence of an external magnetic field is another way to hinder the damage spreading.

The 0-3 PZT/PVDF piezoelectric composites are prepared separately by hot-press and cold-press processes. The effects of the PZT content and the shaping-process on the composites are studied. The experimental results indicate that composites with 70% PZT nanopowders prepared by the hot-press method exhibit excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties. The maxima of d_{33} and ε of the composites prepared by hot-press method are about 30% and 65% higher than those prepared by the cold-press method, respectively. This is mainly attributed to the favourable coupling of the two materials in the process of the hot press and the formation of the β-type PVDF, which possesses better electric properties.

The piezoelectric properties of the (KCe)-substituted sodium bismuth titanate (Na_{0.5}Bi_{4.5}Ti_{4}O_{15}, NBT) piezoelectric ceramics are investigated. The piezoelectric properties of NBT ceramics are significantly enhanced by (KCe) substitution. The Curie temperature Tc, and piezoelectric coefficient d_{33} for the (KCe)-substituted NBT are found to be 663ºC, and 27pC/N, respectively. Dielectric and annealing spectroscopy resent that the (KCe) co-substituted NBT piezoelectric ceramics possess stable piezoelectric properties.

By means of the transfer-matrix method, the effects of parameter modulation on the quality of near-field imaging in one-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of alternately left-handed material and right-handed material are investigated. Based on analyses of the recovery rate and phase shift, the results show that the imaging quality is not obviously affected by the minor changes of layer thickness. In addition, by modulating the material parameters of the left-handed material, it is found that for both the real part and the imaginary part, the system is more sensitive to the permeability than the permittivity for the TE wave. For the TM wave, it is reverse. These properties are very useful to fabricate left-handed material photonic crystals in practice.

Optical transmittance and reflectance on ferroelectric BaTi_{2}O_{5} glasses prepared recently by a containerless synthesis technique are measured at room temperature in the wavelength range 190-800nm. The fundamental absorption edge located around 340nm demonstrates the colourless and transparent character of the glass. The optical band gap of 3.32eV has been estimated. The tail of the optical absorption near the fundamental absorption edge is found to follow the Urbach rule. Our analysis of the experimental spectra supports an indirect allowed interband transition between the valence band formed by O-2p orbitals and the conduction band formed by Ti-3d orbitals.

The performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with thick film is optimized. The alternative vanadium oxide (V_{2}O_{5}) and N,N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB) layers are used to enhance holes in the emissive region, and 4,7-dipheny-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) doped 8-tris-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq_{3}) is used to enhance electrons in the emissive region, thus ITO/V_{2}O_{5} (8nm)/NPB (52nm)/V_{2}O_{5} (8nm)/NPB (52nm)/Alq_{3} (30 and 45nm)/Alq_{3}:Bphen (30wt%, 30 and 45nm)/LiF (1nm)/Al (120nm) devices are fabricated. The thick-film devices show the turn-on voltage of about 3V and the maximal power efficiency of 4.5lm/W, which is 1.46 times higher than the conventional thin-film OLEDs.

Tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) nano-structured films are fabricated by the gas evaporation method, and their fluorescent properties are investigated in detail. Compared with the conventional amorphous Alq3 films, the fluorescent efficiency of the nanostructure films is enhanced to a certain extent.

We synthesize colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots with different shell thicknesses, and there are five samples including CdSe core dots, and CdSe/CdS core/shell dots with 1-4 CdS layers. X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements indicate that the stress in CdSe core becomes stronger with the increasing shell thickness, and the optical measurements show that when the shell becomes thicker, the photoluminescence quantum yield is enhanced, and the radiative decay is also expedited. The temperature-dependent optical spectra are measured. The relation between the microstructure and the optical properties is discussed.

We fabricate the hybrid films of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) sandwiched between two electrodes. The voltage and temperature dependences of the electroluminescence (EL) are measured. The quantum-confined Stark effect of colloidal QDs is clearly observed. To explore the mechanism in the QD EL, hybrid films are fabricated with different concentrations of colloidal QDs. Electrons and holes are proposed to be separately transported in QDs and PVK, respectively.

Sub-diffraction-limit imaging in the optical hyperlens based on cylindrical metamaterials is studied. Some parameters of hyperlens, such as the dispersive relation and the divergence angle of imaging, are numerically analysed with the ray trajectory method and effective medium theory. The dependence of imaging properties on dielectric constant is discussed. As a result, a 0° divergence angle is obtained for the best imaging effect. This work will be helpful for the design, structure fabrication and resolution improvement of the optical hyperlens.

The influence of dopants in ZnO films on defects is investigated by slow positron annihilation technique. The results show S that parameters meet S_{Al}>S_{un}>S_{Ag} for Al-doped ZnO films, undoped and Ag-doped ZnO films. Zinc vacancies are found in all ZnO films with different dopants. According to S parameter and the same defect type, it can be induced that the zinc vacancy concentration is the highest in the Al-doped ZnO film, and it is the least in the Ag-doped ZnO film. When Al atoms are doped in the ZnO films grown on silicon substrates, Zn vacancies increase as compared to the undoped and Ag-doped ZnO films. The dopant concentration could determine the position of Fermi level in materials, while defect formation energy of zinc vacancy strongly depends on the position of Fermi level, so its concentration varies with dopant element and dopant concentration.

At low temperature (400°C), chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is employed to make comb-like Co-doped ZnO nanocantilever arrays (NAs). The magnetization curves of the as-synthesized Co-doped ZnO NAs indicate the existence of above-room-temperature ferromagnetism (ARTFM) (Curie temperature, T_{c}>300K) whereas undoped ZnO NAs does not. The corresponding ferromagnetic source mechanism is discussed, in which defects play an important role due to the strong green light emission.

High quality and highly conductive n-type Al_{0.7}Ga_{0.3}N films are obtained by using AlN multi-step layers (MSL) with periodical variation of V/III ratios by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (LP-MOCVD). The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of (0002) and (10^{-}15) rocking curves of the Si-doped Al_{0.7}Ga_{0.3}N layer are 519 and 625 arcsec, respectively. Room temperature (RT) Hall measurement shows a free electron concentration of 2.9×10^{19}cm^{-3}, and mobility of 17.8cm^{2}V^{-1}s^{-1}, corresponding to a resistivity of 0.0121Ωcm. High conductivity of the Si-doped AlGaN film with such high Al mole fraction is mainly contributed by a remarkable reduction of threading dislocations (TDs) in AlGaN layer. The TD reducing mechanism in AlN MSL growth with periodical variation of V / III ratio is discussed in detail.

Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium doped poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA:Alq_{3}) composite nanofibres are fabricated by electrospinning. The morphology of fibres is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The photoluminescence of a series of the nanofibres with various contents of Alq_{3} to PMMA is investigated. UV-visible absorption and the PL spectra analysis are employed to analyse the interaction between the polymer and the luminescent molecule.

A fully three-dimensional Monte Carlo model for simulation of sculptured thin-film growth is presented. After explaining the model, the simulation results are compared with the corresponding experiments, and encouraging consistency is proven. The morphology of sculptured thin films is then compared on periodical patterned and bare substrates. It is shown that there are more uniform structures and hence possible better optical properties by fabricating on patterned substrates. Finally, with the aid of computer simulation, we examine the self-shadowing effect and our theoretical analysis of simulated morphology data deals with the accuracy of this model.

Gold nanorods with different aspect ratios are prepared in micells using a seeded growth method. Their extinction spectra are observed with an UV-visible spectrophotometer and analysed theoretically. It is known that there are two plasmon resonance peaks for gold nanorod corresponding to transverse and longitudinal plasmon resonance respectively. Moreover, the longitudinal plasmon resonance peak shifts to long wavelength when we increase the aspect ratio determined from TEM. Especially, we model the extinction spectrum using Gans' theory and compare it with our experimental result. Considering the aspect radios distribution of gold nanorods, it is found that longitudinal plasmon resonance peak will be wider than the nanorods with single aspect ratio, which is consistent with our experimental result. In addition, the effect of dielectric constant of surrounding medium is considered.

Femtosecond laser ablation of silver plate placed in water is used to produce nanoparticle suspension. The method is easy to operate and the suspension is relatively stable. The optical properties and the size distribution of the suspension are studied with UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering, respectively. The shape of the nanoparticles is investigated by an atomic force microscope, which is near spherical. There are two kinds of nanoparticles, small particles with diameter about 35nm, and large particles with diameter about 120nm.

A series of GaAs_{1-y}Sb_{y }epilayers are grown on GaAs substrates under different growth conditions. Different antimony compositions of samples with beryllium doping are obtained. A non-equilibrium thermodynamics model is used to calibrate and fit the Sb composition. Activation energy of 0.37eV for the dissociation process of Sb_{4 }molecules is obtained. Carrier mobility and concentration of samples are influenced by the Sb composition. Quasi-qualitative analysis of mobility is used to explain the relations among Sb composition, carrier mobility and concentration. High resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) rocking curves and Hall effects measurements are used to determine the crystal quality, carrier mobility and concentration.

Brownian dynamics simulation is conducted for a dilute surfactant solution under a steady uniaxial elongational flow. A new inter-cluster potential is used for the interaction among surfactant micelles to determine the micellar network structures in the surfactant solution. The micellar network is successfully simulated. It is formed at low elongation rates and destroyed by high elongation rates. The computed elongational viscosities show elongation-thinning characteristics.The relationship between the elongational viscosities and the microstructure of the surfactant solution is revealed.

A photonic crystal fibre (PCF) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor is developed based on silver nanoparticle colloid. Analyte solution and silver nanoparticles are injected into the air holes of PCF by a simple modified syringe to overcome mass-transport constraints, allowing more silver nanoparticles involved in SERS activity. This sensor offers significant benefit over the conventional SERS sensor with high flexibility, easy manufacture. We demonstrate the detection of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) molecules with the injecting way and the common dipping measurement. The injecting way shows obviously better results than the dipping one. Theoretical analysis indicates that this PCF SERS substrate offers enhancement of about 7 orders of magnitude in SERS active area.

We synthesize and purify 9,9'-bianthracene with the purity up to 96.4 %. The electronic and crystallographic structures of 9,9'-bianthracene are studied. The results of a joint experimental investigation based on a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, hydrogen nuclear magnetic (HNMR) spectra, infrared absorption (FT-IR) spectra, and mass spectra (MS) of 9,9'-bianthracene are obtained. The uniform compact film is observed by an atomic-force microscope (AFM). Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with an active layer based on the synthesized 9,9'-bianthracene are fabricated for the first time. Its field-effect mobility is as large as 0.067cm^{2}/(V・s) and the on/off ratio is above 5×10^{4}. The result demonstrates that the oligomerization of a small semiconductor molecule is an effective method to develop high-mobility organic semiconductors.

ZnS quantum dots (QDs), prepared by soft-condensation, exhibit robust structure of a quantum size equal 3.13 nm mediated two-dimensional gum Arabic surfactant as characterized by scan tunnelling microscope (STM). Strong blue-shifted absorption and emission bands are depicted by optical characterization even for the sample stored under ambient condition for two weeks. These enhancements can be attributed to the completely passivated surface trap states by Gum Arabic.

The GRACE Earth's gravitational field complete up to degree and order 120 is recovered based on the same and different three-axis resolution indexes from satellite-borne accelerometer using the improved energy conservation principle. The results show that designing X_{A1(2)} as low-sensitivity axis (3×10^{-9 }m/s^{2}) of accelerometer and designing Y_{A1(2)} and Z_{A1(2)} as high-sensitivity axes (3×10^{-10}m/s^{2}) are reasonable. The physical reason why the resolution of X_{A1(2)} is one order of magnitude lower than Y_{A1(2)} and Z_{A1(2)} is that non-conservative forces acting on GRACE satellites are mainly decomposed into Y_{A1(2)} and Z_{A1(2)} in the orbital plane. Since X_{A1(2)} is not orthogonal accurately to orbital plane during the development of accelerometer, the measurement of X_{A1(2)} can not be thrown off entirely, but be reduced properly

We present a possible hadronic explanation of the high-energy γ-ray emission from two very high-energy (VHE) sources, HESS J1745--303 (A) and HESS J1714-385, which coincide with supernova remnants (SNRs) interacting with dense molecular clouds (MCs). We calculate the proton spectra and the corresponding hadronic γ-ray spectra for different Mach numbers of the shock wave in a semi-analytical model for the non-linear shock acceleration process, then apply the model to the two newly discovered TeV sources. The results show that the γ-ray spectra for the two sources with energies above 100MeV detected by HESS and EGRET can be reproduced with low Mach numbers about 2.5. Thus the high-energy γ-ray origin for each one of the two sources can be interpreted as proton--proton (p-p) collisions in MCs overtaken by an SNR shock wave..

We consider the thorium distributions that are coincident with the distribution of ejecta after the Mare mbrium impact occurs on the lunar surface and derive a simple model on the spherical target to predict the thickness of Imbrium ejecta deposits as a function of distance from the centre of the Imbrium basin. Then we use the result of Lunar Prospector's gamma ray experiment to test the hypothesis that the distribution of thorium on the lunar surface has an origin from the Mare Imbrium.

We construct a realistic model to evaluate the chorus wave--particle interaction in the outer radiation belt L=4.5. This model incorporates a plasmatrough number density model, a field-aligned density model and a realistic wave power and frequency model. We solve the 2D bounce-averaged momentum-pitch-angle Fokker--Planck equation and show that the Whistler-mode chorus can be effective in the acceleration of electrons, and enhance the phase space density for energies of ~1 MeV by a factor from 10 to 10^{3} in about two days, consistent with the observation. We also demonstrate that ignorance of the electron number density variation along field line and magnetic local time in the previous work yields an overestimate of energetic electron phase space density by a factor 5~10 at large pitch-angle after two days, suggesting that a realistic plasma density model is very important to evaluate the evolution of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt.

We investigate a cosmological model of a phantom energy with a variable cosmological constant (Λ) depending on the energy density (ρ) as Λ∝ρ^{-α}, α=const and a variable gravitational constant G. The model requires α<0 and a negative gravitational constant. The cosmological constant evolves with time as Λ∝t^{-2}. For Ω>-1 and α<-1 the cosmological constant Λ<0, G>0 and ρ decrease with cosmic expansion. For ordinary energy (or dark energy), i.e.~ω>-1, we have -1<α<0 and β>0 so that G>0 increases with time and ρ decreases with time. Cosmic acceleration with dust particles is granted, provided -{2/3}<α<0 and Λ>0.