Volume 40 Issue 1

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Highlighted Articles

Long Zhang and Chengxiang Ding
Chin. Phys. Lett., 2023, 40 (1): 010501   PDF ( 103 )   HTML ( 42 )
Kun Jiang
Chin. Phys. Lett., 2023, 40 (1): 017102   PDF ( 40 )   HTML ( 71 )
Zhiwen Wang, Jinghua Liang, and Hongxin Yang
Chin. Phys. Lett., 2023, 40 (1): 017501   PDF ( 63 )   HTML ( 19 )
Xiang Xiong, Zhao-Yuan Zeng, Ruwen Peng, and Mu Wang
Chin. Phys. Lett., 2023, 40 (1): 017801   PDF ( 67 )   HTML ( 21 )

Current Issue

GENERAL
Multi-Mode Bus Coupling Architecture of Superconducting Quantum Processor
Changhao Zhao, Yongcheng He, Xiao Geng, Kaiyong He, Genting Dai, Jianshe Liu, and Wei Chen
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 010301 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/010301
Abstract   PDF(pc) (5360KB) ( 44 ) PDF(mobile)(5946KB) ( 8 ) HTML ( 27
Resonators in circuit quantum electrodynamics systems naturally carry multiple modes, which may have non-negligible influence on qubit parameters and device performance. While new theories and techniques are under investigation to deal with the multi-mode effects in circuit quantum electrodynamics systems, researchers have proposed novel engineering designs featuring multi-mode resonators to achieve enhanced functionalities of superconducting quantum processors. Here, we propose multi-mode bus coupling architecture, in which superconducting qubits are coupled to multiple bus resonators to gain larger coupling strength. Applications of multi-mode bus couplers can be helpful for improving iSWAP gate fidelity and gate speed beyond the limit of single-mode scenario. The proposed multi-mode bus coupling architecture is compatible with a scalable variation of the traditional bus coupling architecture. It opens up new possibilities for realization of scalable superconducting quantum computation with circuit quantum electrodynamics systems.
Variational Quantum Eigensolver with Mutual Variance-Hamiltonian Optimization
Bin-Lin Chen and Dan-Bo Zhang
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 010303 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/010303
Abstract   PDF(pc) (2361KB) ( 36 ) PDF(mobile)(2370KB) ( 1 ) HTML ( 16
The zero-energy variance principle can be exploited in variational quantum eigensolvers for solving general eigenstates but its capacity for obtaining a specified eigenstate, such as ground state, is limited as all eigenstates are of zero energy variance. We propose a variance-based variational quantum eigensolver for solving the ground state by searching in an enlarged space of wavefunction and Hamiltonian. With a mutual variance-Hamiltonian optimization procedure, the Hamiltonian is iteratively updated to guild the state towards to the ground state of the target Hamiltonian by minimizing the energy variance in each iteration. We demonstrate the performance and properties of the algorithm with numeral simulations. Our work suggests an avenue for utilizing guided Hamiltonian in hybrid quantum-classical algorithms.
Finite-Size Scaling Theory at a Self-Dual Quantum Critical Point
Long Zhang and Chengxiang Ding
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 010501 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/010501
Abstract   PDF(pc) (1347KB) ( 103 ) PDF(mobile)(1357KB) ( 6 ) HTML ( 42
The nondivergence of the generalized Grüneisen ratio (GR) at a quantum critical point (QCP) has been proposed to be a universal thermodynamic signature of self-duality. We study how the Kramers–Wannier-type self-duality manifests itself in the finite-size scaling behavior of thermodynamic quantities in the quantum critical regime. While the self-duality cannot be realized as a unitary transformation in the total Hilbert space for the Hamiltonian with the periodic boundary condition, it can be implemented in certain symmetry sectors with proper boundary conditions. Therefore, the GR and the transverse magnetization of the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model exhibit different finite-size scaling behaviors in different sectors. This implies that the numerical diagnosis of self-dual QCP requires identification of the proper symmetry sectors.
THE PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS
Axion-Photon Conversion of LHAASO Multi-TeV and PeV Photons
Guangshuai Zhang and Bo-Qiang Ma
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 011401 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/011401
Abstract   PDF(pc) (557KB) ( 14 ) PDF(mobile)(561KB) ( 8 ) HTML ( 37
The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) has reported the detection of a large number of multi-TeV-scale photon events also including several PeV-scale gamma-ray-photon events with energy as high as 1.4 PeV. The possibility that some of these events may have extragalactic origins is not yet excluded. Here we propose a mechanism for the traveling of very-high-energy and ultra-high-energy photons based upon the axion-photon conversion scenario, which allows extragalactic above-threshold photons to be detected by observers on the Earth. We show that the axion-photon conversation can serve as an alternative mechanism, besides the threshold anomaly due to Lorentz invariance violation, for the very-high-energy features of the newly observed gamma ray burst GRB 221009A.
NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Fission Properties of Neutron-Rich Nuclei around the End Point of $r$-Process
Jiawei Chen, Junchen Pei, Yu Qiang, and Jihuai Chi
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 012401 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/01/012401
Abstract   PDF(pc) (1701KB) ( 13 ) PDF(mobile)(1704KB) ( 0 ) HTML ( 35
We studied the fission properties of neutron-rich nuclei $^{278, 286}$Cf around the end point of $r$-process by microscopic self-consistent approaches. The fission barriers and potential energy surfaces are obtained by constrained static Skyrme Hartree–Fock-BCS calculations. Fission fragments are studied by dynamical time-dependent Hartree–Fock+BCS calculations. Results show that $^{286}$Cf has an octupole deformation at ground state, which can increase the fission barrier height by 1.1 MeV and enhance significantly the spontaneous fission half-life. To search possible fission channels, dynamical calculations with a broad coverage of initial deformations result in two slightly asymmetric peaks around $A=128$ and 150 for $^{278}$Cf, and $A=133$ and 153 for $^{286}$Cf. Very asymmetric fission channels as given by semi-empirical models are not found in our results.
FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY(INCLUDING APPLICATIONS)
Flat Top Optical Frequency Combs Based on a Single-Core Quantum Cascade Laser at Wavelength of $\sim$ 8.7 μm
Yu Ma, Wei-Jiang Li Yun-Fei, Xu, Jun-Qi Liu, Ning Zhuo, Ke Yang, Jin-Chuan Zhang, Shen-Qiang Zhai, Shu-Man Liu, Li-Jun Wang, and Feng-Qi Liu
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 014201 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/014201
Abstract   PDF(pc) (2466KB) ( 19 ) PDF(mobile)(2466KB) ( 6 ) HTML ( 22
We present optical frequency combs with a spectral emission of 48 cm$^{-1}$ and an output power of 420 mW based on a single-core quantum cascade laser at $\lambda \sim 8.7$ µm. A flat top spectrum sustains up to 130 comb modes delivering $\sim$ 3.2 mW of optical power per mode, making it a valuable tool for dual comb spectroscopy. The homogeneous gain medium, relying on a slightly diagonal bound-to-continuum structure, promises to provide a broad and stable gain for comb operating. Remarkably, the dispersion of this device is measured within 300 fs$^{2}$/mm to ensure stable comb operation over 90% of the total current range. The comb is observed with a narrow beatnote linewidth around 2 kHz and has weak dependence on the applied current for stable comb operation.
Superscattering of Underwater Sound via Deep Learning Approach
Wenjie Miao, Zhiang Linghu, Qiujiao Du, Pai Peng, and Fengming Liu
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 014301 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/014301
Abstract   PDF(pc) (3426KB) ( 11 ) PDF(mobile)(3431KB) ( 1 ) HTML ( 14
We design a multilayer cylindrical structure to realize superscattering of underwater sound. Because of the near degeneracy of resonances in multiple channels of the structure, the scattering contributions from these resonances can overlap to break the single-channel limit of subwavelength objects. However, tuning the design parameters to achieve the target response is an optimization process that is tedious and time-consuming. Here, we demonstrate that a well-trained tandem neural network can deal with this problem efficiently, which can not only forwardly predict the scattering spectra of the multilayer structure with high precision, but also inversely design the required structural parameters efficiently.
CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES
Observation of Charge Density Wave in Layered Hexagonal Cu$_{1.89}$Te Single Crystal
Wenshuai Gao, Zheng Chen, Wensen Wei, Chao Yan, Shasha Wang, Jin Tang, Ranran Zhang, Lixun Cheng, Pengfei Nan, Jie Wang, Yuyan Han, Chuanying Xi, Binghui Ge, Lin He, Haifeng Du, Wei Ning, Xiangde Zhu, and Mingliang Tian
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 017101 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/017101
Abstract   PDF(pc) (5804KB) ( 22 ) PDF(mobile)(6136KB) ( 5 ) HTML ( 19
We report comprehensive transport, electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy studies on transition-metal chalcogenides Cu$_{1.89}$Te single crystals. The metallic Cu$_{1.89}$Te displays successive metal-semiconductor transitions at low temperatures and almost ideal linear MR when magnetic field up to 33 T. Through the electron diffraction patterns, the stable room-temperature phase is identified as a $3 \times 3\times 2$ modulated superstructure based on the Nowotny hexagonal structure. The superlattice spots of transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy clearly show the structural transitions from the room-temperature commensurate I phase, named as C-I phase, to the low temperature commensurate II (C-II) phase. All the results can be understood in terms of charge density wave (CDW) instability, yielding intuitive evidences for the CDW formations in Cu$_{1.89}$Te. The additional Raman modes below room temperature further reveal that the zone-folded phonon modes may play an important role on the CDW transitions. Our research sheds light on the novel electron features of Cu$_{1.89}$Te at low temperature, and may provide potential applications for future nano-devices.
Correlation Renormalized and Induced Spin-Orbit Coupling
Kun Jiang
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 017102 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/017102
Abstract   PDF(pc) (3526KB) ( 40 ) PDF(mobile)(3953KB) ( 0 ) HTML ( 71
Interplay of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and electron correlation generates a bunch of emergent quantum phases and transitions, especially topological insulators and topological transitions. We find that electron correlation will induce extra large SOC in multi-orbital systems under atomic SOC and change ground state topological properties. Using the Hartree–Fock mean field theory, phase diagrams of $p_{x}/p_{y}$ orbital ionic Hubbard model on honeycomb lattice are well studied. In general, correction of strength of SOC $\delta \lambda \propto (U'-J)$. Due to breaking down of rotation symmetry, form of SOC on multi-orbital materials is also changed under correlation. If a non-interacting system is close to fermionic instability, spontaneous generalized SOC can also be found. Using renormalization group, SOC is leading instability close to quadratic band-crossing point. Mean fields at quadratic band-crossing point are also studied.
Fe$_{1+y}$Te$_{x}$Se$_{1-x}$: A Delicate and Tunable Majorana Material
Fazhi Yang, Giao Ngoc Phan, Renjie Zhang, Jin Zhao, Jiajun Li, Zouyouwei Lu, John Schneeloch, Ruidan Zhong, Mingwei Ma, Genda Gu, Xiaoli Dong, Tian Qian, and Hong Ding
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 017401 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/017401
Abstract   PDF(pc) (3489KB) ( 23 ) PDF(mobile)(3493KB) ( 7 ) HTML ( 22
We report the observation for the $p_{z}$ electron band and the band inversion in Fe$_{1+y}$Te$_{x}$Se$_{1-x}$ with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Furthermore, we found that excess Fe ($y> 0$) inhibits the topological band inversion in Fe$_{1+y}$Te$_{x}$Se$_{1-x}$, which explains the absence of Majorana zero modes in previous reports for Fe$_{1+y}$Te$_{x}$Se$_{1-x}$ with excess Fe. Based on our analysis of different amounts of Te doping and excess Fe, we propose a delicate topological phase in this material. Thanks to this delicate phase, one may be able to tune the topological transition via applying lattice strain or carrier doping.
Theoretical Prediction of Superconductivity in Boron Kagome Monolayer: $M$B$_{3}$ ($M$ = Be, Ca, Sr) and the Hydrogenated CaB$_{3}$
Liu Yang, Ya-Ping Li, Hao-Dong Liu, Na Jiao, Mei-Yan Ni, Hong-Yan Lu, Ping Zhang, and C. S. Ting
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 017402 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/017402
Abstract   PDF(pc) (12645KB) ( 20 ) PDF(mobile)(14099KB) ( 2 ) HTML ( 21
Using first-principles calculations, we predict a new type of two-dimensional (2D) boride $M$B$_{3}$ ($M$ = Be, Ca, Sr), constituted by boron kagome monolayer and the metal atoms adsorbed above the center of the boron hexagons. The band structures show that the three $M$B$_{3}$ compounds are metallic, thus the possible phonon-mediated superconductivity is explored. Based on the Eliashberg equation, for BeB$_{3}$, CaB$_{3}$, and SrB$_{3}$, the calculated electron–phonon coupling constants $\lambda $ are 0.46, 1.09, and 1.33, and the corresponding superconducting transition temperatures $T_{\rm c}$ are 3.2, 22.4, and 20.9 K, respectively. To explore superconductivity with higher transition temperature, hydrogenation and charge doping are further considered. The hydrogenated CaB$_{3}$, i.e., HCaB$_{3}$, is stable, with the enhanced $\lambda $ of 1.39 and a higher $T_{\rm c}$ of 39.3 K. Moreover, with further hole doping at the concentration of $5.8\times 10^{11}$ hole/cm$^{2}$, the $T_{\rm c}$ of HCaB$_{3}$ can be further increased to 44.2 K, exceeding the McMillan limit. The predicted $M$B$_{3}$ and HCaB$_{3}$ provide new platforms for investigating 2D superconductivity in boron kagome lattice since superconductivity based on monolayer boron kagome lattice has not been studied before.
Growth and Characterization of a New Superconductor GaBa$_{2}$Ca$_{3}$Cu$_{4}$O$_{11+\delta}$
Xue Ming, Chengping He, Xiyu Zhu, Huiyang Gou, and Hai-Hu Wen
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 017403 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/017403
Abstract   PDF(pc) (4710KB) ( 28 ) PDF(mobile)(4717KB) ( 4 ) HTML ( 39
We successfully grow a new superconductor GaBa$_{2}$Ca$_{3}$Cu$_{4}$O$_{11+ \delta}$ (Ga-1234) with a transition temperature of 113 K, using the Walker-type high-pressure synthesis apparatus. X-ray diffraction measurements on the powderized samples show a mixture of the Ga-1234 phase and the Ca$_{0.85}$CuO$_{2}$ phase, and the former is dominant. Under the scanning electron microscope, plate-like crystals of the Ga-based 1234 phase with shiny surfaces can be seen. The obtained local chemical compositions revealed by energy dispersion x-ray spectroscopy are very close to the stoichiometric values. On some sub-millimeter crystal-like samples of the 1234 phase, we obtain a full Meissner shielding volume. From the temperature-dependent magnetizations, we determine the irreversibility fields and find that the system exhibits a highly anisotropic behavior.
Strain-Enabled Control of Chiral Magnetic Structures in MnSeTe Monolayer
Zhiwen Wang, Jinghua Liang, and Hongxin Yang
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 017501 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/017501
Abstract   PDF(pc) (10377KB) ( 63 ) PDF(mobile)(11252KB) ( 0 ) HTML ( 19
Chiral magnetic states are promising for future spintronic applications. Recent progress of chiral spin textures in two-dimensional magnets, such as chiral domain walls, skyrmions, and bimerons, have been drawing extensive attention. Here, via first-principles calculations, we show that biaxial strain can effectively manipulate the magnetic parameters of the Janus MnSeTe monolayer. Interestingly, we find that both the magnitude and the sign of the magnetic constants of the Heisenberg exchange coupling, Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction and magnetocrystalline anisotropy can be tuned by strain. Moreover, using micromagnetic simulations, we obtain the distinct phase diagram of chiral spin texture under different strains. Especially, we demonstrate that abundant chiral magnetic structures including ferromagnetic skyrmion, skyrmionium, bimeron, and antiferromagnetic spin spiral can be induced in the MnSeTe monolayer. We also discuss the effect of temperature on these magnetic structures. The findings highlight the Janus MnSeTe monolayer as a good candidate for spintronic nanodevices.
Directional Chiral Optical Emission by Electron-Beam-Excited Nano-Antenna
Xiang Xiong, Zhao-Yuan Zeng, Ruwen Peng, and Mu Wang
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 017801 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/017801
Abstract   PDF(pc) (15358KB) ( 67 ) PDF(mobile)(15364KB) ( 0 ) HTML ( 21
Manipulating directional chiral optical emissions on a nanometer scale is significant for material science research. The electron-beam-excited nanoantenna provides a favorable platform to tune optical emissions at the deep subwavelength scale. Here we present an L-shaped electron-beam-excited nanoantenna (LENA) with two identical orthogonal arms. By selecting different electron-beam impacting sites on the LENA, either the left-handed circularly polarized (LCP) or the right-handed circularly polarized (RCP) emission can be excited. The LCP and RCP emissions possess different emission directionality, and the emission wavelength depends on the arm length of the LENA. Further, we show a combined nanoantenna with two LENAs of different arm lengths. Induced by the electron beam, LCP and RCP lights emit simultaneously from the nanoantenna with different wavelengths to different directions. This approach is suggested to be informative for investigating electron-photon interaction and electron-beam spectroscopy in nanophotonics.
GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, AND ASTROPHYSICS
Latest Data Constraint of Some Parameterized Dark Energy Models
Jing Yang, Xin-Yan Fan, Chao-Jun Feng, and Xiang-Hua Zhai
Chin. Phys. Lett. 2023, 40 (1): 019801 .   DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/40/1/019801
Abstract   PDF(pc) (2795KB) ( 8 ) PDF(mobile)(2798KB) ( 1 ) HTML ( 21
Using various latest cosmological datasets including type-Ia supernovae, cosmic microwave background radiation, baryon acoustic oscillations, and estimations of the Hubble parameter, we test some dark-energy models with parameterized equations of state and try to distinguish or select observation-preferred models. We obtain the best fitting results of the six models and calculate their values of the Akaike information criteria and Bayes information criterion. We can distinguish these dark energy models from each other by using these two information criterions. However, the $\varLambda $CDM model remains the best fit model. Furthermore, we perform geometric diagnostics including statefinder and $Om$ diagnostics to understand the geometric behavior of the dark energy models. We find that the six dark-energy models can be distinguished from each other and from $\varLambda $CDM, Chaplygin gas, quintessence models after the statefinder and $Om$ diagnostics are performed. Finally, we consider the growth factor of the dark-energy models with comparison to the $\varLambda $CDM model. Still, we find the models can be distinguished from each other and from the $\varLambda $CDM model through the growth factor approximation.
15 articles