Chin. Phys. Lett.  2021, Vol. 38 Issue (11): 110302    DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/38/11/110302
Random-Gate-Voltage Induced Al'tshuler–Aronov–Spivak Effect in Topological Edge States
Kun Luo1, Wei Chen1,2*, Li Sheng1,2, and D. Y. Xing1,2
1National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
2Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
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Kun Luo, Wei Chen, Li Sheng et al  2021 Chin. Phys. Lett. 38 110302
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Abstract Helical edge states are the hallmark of the quantum spin Hall insulator. Recently, several experiments have observed transport signatures contributed by trivial edge states, making it difficult to distinguish between the topologically trivial and nontrivial phases. Here, we show that helical edge states can be identified by the random-gate-voltage induced $\varPhi_0/2$-period oscillation of the averaged electron return probability in the interferometer constructed by the edge states. The random gate voltage can highlight the $\varPhi_0/2$-period Al'tshuler–Aronov–Spivak oscillation proportional to $\sin^2(2\pi\varPhi/\varPhi_0)$ by quenching the $\varPhi_0$-period Aharonov–Bohm oscillation. It is found that the helical spin texture induced $\pi$ Berry phase is key to such weak antilocalization behavior with zero return probability at $\varPhi=0$. In contrast, the oscillation for the trivial edge states may exhibit either weak localization or antilocalization depending on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling, which has finite return probability at $\varPhi=0$. Our results provide an effective way for the identification of the helical edge states. The predicted signature is stabilized by the time-reversal symmetry so that it is robust against disorder and does not require any fine adjustment of system.
Received: 09 August 2021      Editors' Suggestion Published: 28 October 2021
PACS:  03.65.Vf (Phases: geometric; dynamic or topological)  
  73.20.-r (Electron states at surfaces and interfaces)  
  75.47.-m (Magnetotransport phenomena; materials for magnetotransport)  
Fund: Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 12074172, 11674160, and 11974168), the Startup Grant at Nanjing University, the State Key Program for Basic Researches of China (Grant No. 2017YFA0303203), and the Excellent Programme at Nanjing University.
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Kun Luo
Wei Chen
Li Sheng
and D. Y. Xing
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