Chin. Phys. Lett.  2020, Vol. 37 Issue (4): 040301    DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/37/4/040301
Superfluid-Mott-Insulator Transition in an Optical Lattice with Adjustable Ensemble-Averaged Filling Factors
Shifeng Yang1, Tianwei Zhou1, Chen Li2, Kaixiang Yang1, Yueyang Zhai3**, Xuguang Yue4, Xuzong Chen1**
1School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871
2Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU-Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna, Austria
3Innovative Research Institute of Frontier Science and Technology, Beihang University, Beijing 100191
4Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), Wuhan 430074
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Shifeng Yang, Tianwei Zhou, Chen Li et al  2020 Chin. Phys. Lett. 37 040301
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Abstract We study the quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator of ultracold atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice with adjustable filling factors. Based on the density-adjustable Bose–Einstein condensate we prepared, the excitation spectrum in the superfluid and the Mott insulator regime is measured with different ensemble-averaged filling factors. We show that for the superfluid phase, the center of the excitation spectrum is positively correlated with the ensemble-averaged filling factor, indicating a higher sound speed of the system. For the Mott insulator phase, the discrete feature of the excitation spectrum becomes less pronounced as the ensemble-averaged filling factor increases, implying that it is harder for the system to enter the Mott insulator regime with higher filling factors. The ability to manipulate the filling factor affords further potential in performing quantum simulation with cold atoms trapped in optical lattices.
Received: 07 December 2019      Published: 24 March 2020
PACS:  03.75.Hh (Static properties of condensates; thermodynamical, statistical, and structural properties)  
  37.10.Jk (Atoms in optical lattices)  
  03.65.Nk (Scattering theory)  
Fund: Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61703025, 91736208, 11504328, and 11920101004), the National Program on Key Basic Research Project of China (Grant Nos. 2016YFA0301501 and 2017YFA0304204).
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Shifeng Yang
Tianwei Zhou
Chen Li
Kaixiang Yang
Yueyang Zhai
Xuguang Yue
Xuzong Chen
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