Chin. Phys. Lett.  2017, Vol. 34 Issue (8): 088102    DOI: 10.1088/0256-307X/34/8/088102
High Refractive Index Ti$_3$O$_5$ Films for Dielectric Metasurfaces
Sohail Abdul Jalil1,2, Mahreen Akram4, Gwanho Yoon2, Ayesha Khalid1, Dasol Lee2, Niloufar Raeis-Hosseini3, Sunae So2, Inki Kim2, Qazi Salman Ahmed1, Junsuk Rho2,3**, Muhammad Qasim Mehmood1**
1Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Technology University of the Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 37673, Republic of Korea
3Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 37673, Republic of Korea
4Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GCU, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Abstract Ti$_3$O$_5$ films are deposited with the help of an electron beam evaporator for their applications in metasurfaces. The film of subwavelength (632 nm) thickness is deposited on a silicon substrate and annealed at 400$^{\circ}\!$C. The ellipsometry result shows a high refractive index above 2.5 with the minimum absorption coefficient in the visible region, which is necessary for high efficiency of transparent metasurfaces. Atomic force microscopy analysis is employed to measure the roughness of the as-deposited films. It is seen from micrographs that the deposited films are very smooth with the minimum roughness to prevent scattering and absorption losses for metasurface devices. The absence of grains and cracks can be seen by scanning electron microscope analysis, which is favorable for electron beam lithography. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals the transmission and reflection obtained from the film deposited on glass substrates. The as-deposited film shows high transmission above 60%, which is in good agreement with metasurfaces.
Received: 23 March 2017      Published: 22 July 2017
PACS:  81.15.Dj (E-beam and hot filament evaporation deposition)  
  81.40.-z (Treatment of materials and its effects on microstructure, nanostructure, And properties)  
  42.70.-a (Optical materials)  
Fund: M. Q. M. acknowledges Information Technology University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan for financial support. J. R. acknowledges the financial support by Engineering Research Center Program (NRF-2015R1A5A1037668), I. K. acknowledges global Ph.D. fellowship (NRF-2016H1A2A1906519), and N. R.-H. acknowledges the KRF fellowship (NRF-2017H1D3A1A02011379) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) of Korean government.
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Sohail Abdul Jalil, Mahreen Akram, Gwanho Yoon et al  2017 Chin. Phys. Lett. 34 088102
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Sohail Abdul Jalil
Mahreen Akram
Gwanho Yoon
Ayesha Khalid
Dasol Lee
Niloufar Raeis-Hosseini
Sunae So
Inki Kim
Qazi Salman Ahmed
Junsuk Rho
Muhammad Qasim Mehmood
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